The final CPP was identified as OCP by electron diffraction. The resulting chitosan/brushite composite coatings were converted to chitosan/HAp coatings by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH for 7 days at room temperature, resulting in chitosan contents between 1.2 and 16 wt%. Osteopontin and its receptors are considered targets for therapeutics aimed at limiting invasion and metastasis. The porous PEEK-OPTIMA showed excellent cytocompatibility and also demonstrated the ability to maintain the cells in their differentiated state. After MUC1 binding, a well-defined 3D structure was formed, which led to the Apt–AuNPs/MUC1 complex formation. Desai NP, Trieu V, Damascelli B, Soon-Shiong P. SPARC expression correlates with tumor response to albumin-bound paclitaxel in head and neck cancer patients. In the LLC-PK1 cell, osteonectin protein was localized to intracellular granules, and was secreted preferentially from the basolateral domain of the cell. (2011b) reported a labeled “signal-on” aptasensor for the detection VEGF in human whole blood. Binding to the alpha portion is dependent on divalent cations (eg, calcium and magnesium), while the beta chain recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence (RGD) present on many ECM components [28]. 86–89 These bone-matrix proteins have proven to be particularly useful osteogenic markers to characterize the different stages of osteoblast differentiation. There is mounting evidence that matricellular proteins play an important function in modulating cancer cell behavior and the tumor microenvironment.4,5 Matricellular proteins are noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins that function as modulators of cell behavior as well as regulators of matrix organization.6 The matricellular proteins osteopontin [bone sialoprotein I (BSP-1), early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1) or secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)] and osteonectin [secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) or BM-40] have been reported to be upregulated in PDA lesions, and several groups are trying to understand their role in this disease. Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated sialoprotein that is a prominent component of the mineralized extracellular matrices of bones and teeth. Results are normalized to the internal control β-actin protein for each substratum. When the resorption cavity is filled, the remaining cells differentiate into lining cells. Cancer Biol Ther It exploits the ability of aptamers to form several secondary and/or tertiary structures after binding to their target protein. This study focused on the role of osteonectin in regulating extracellular matrix mineralization via the p38 signaling pathway. Developing mineralized tissue scaffolds that mimic the microstructure of bone and associated biomechanical properties can only be achieved by a greater understanding of the interactions and factors controlling mineralization at a molecular level. After THR binding, the aptamer forms a stable and rigid structure (G-quadruplex structure) and the MB-label is kept away from the electrode surface, the electron transfer is inhibited, thus resulting in a current decrease. OPN is characterized by the presence of a polyaspartic acid sequence and sites of Ser/Thr phosphorylation that mediate hydroxyapatite binding, and a highly conserved RGD motif that mediates cell attachment/signaling. Recently, Liu et al. HRP, horseradish peroxidase; IFN-γ, interferon gamma; MB, methylene blue; MUC1, mucin 1; OPN, osteopontin; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; THR, thrombin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. All values are mean ± standard deviation of eight measurements. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. [77,80] worked with slightly higher concentrated solutions of 2.5-4 mM Ca, 1-2 mM PO4, and 0-0.2 g/L chitosan. AuNPs were used to manufacture this aptasensor, as well as the enzyme HRP and a GCE modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and streptavidin. Our data suggest that osteo-stimulatory factors could be used to achieve better therapeutic outcomes in AML. [78] investigated the combination of electrolytes based on different Ca- and PO4-concentrations (0.18-0.6 mM Ca and 0.43-1.46 mM PO4) with varying chitosan molalities from 0.008 to 0.047. For signal amplification and to capture the MUC1 protein, the aptamer was functionalized with AuNPs (Apt–AuNPs). Osteopontin (OPN) is a multiphosphorylated extracellular glycoprotein, which has important roles in bone remodeling, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. The temporal expression of osteogenic proteins by osteoblasts cultured on different calcium phosphate materials for 14 days. (2014) developed an ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of MUC1. (2010)). Osteonectin influences growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Although overexpression of full length osteopontin was not able to promote cell growth, it is possible that a different effect on growth and cell survival may be obtained with overexpression of osteopontin-c. Further, it is intriguing to consider the mechanisms driving the alternative splicing of osteopontin transcripts in PDA. The proposed label-free aptasensor showed a low detection limit (0.1 nM) exhibiting high sensitivity and good selectivity against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In order to determine whether this stimulation of osteogenesis by bioactive glasses occurs through direct contact between substrate and cells or through ions released during their biodegradation, Xynos et al. Before binding to the protein, the 3′-end MB-label aptamer is close to the electrode surface, thus allowing the transfer of electrons with the electrode surface due to the flexible structure of the aptamer. Commentary to: The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. [32]. That indicates that the self-assembly of tropocollagen to supramolecular structures under the chosen conditions does not result in the formation of fibrils with native substructure. (2015) developed an impedimetric aptasensor, using AuNPs for signal amplification and the redox probe [Fe(CN)6]3 −/4 −, for detection and quantification of MUC1 in PBS buffer solutions. This issue, Previouslypublished online: www.landesbioscience.com/journals/cbt/article/12452, Effects of matricellular proteins osteopontin and osteonectin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), Matricellular proteins osteopontin and osteonectin/SPARC in pancreatic carcinoma, Center for Molecular Medicine; University of Connecticut Health Center; Farmington, CT USA. Osteonectin is a … The similarity between bone mineral and hydroxyapatite was first noticed by de Jong (1926). The ECAD process was performed at 30 °C in a potential range between − 1 and − 3 VSCE. Citrate, a tricarboxylic acid present in all citrus fruits, is also a major constituent of bone, making up ~ 2 wt% of all mammalian bone (Schwarcz et al., 2011). In a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, knock down of osteopontin mRNA, via transient transfection of a specific antisense oligonucleotide, suppressed cell growth. The murine ortholog is Spp1 . Expression of osteopontin (OPN), along with its α ν β 3 integrin receptor, has been shown to be markedly increased in injured blood vessels, atherosclerotic plaques, and arteries of diabetic subjects, although virtually absent from normal arteries. Osteopontin is a phosphorylated glycoprotein secreted to the mineralizing extracellular matrix by osteoblasts during bone development. The organic bone matrix contain type I collagen fibers, proteoglycans enriched in chondroitin sulfate, and noncollagenous matrix protein such as osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin. Cancer Biol Ther. A detection limit of 5 pM was achieved in 50% of blood serum. Schwarcz, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), 2014. Mantoni TS, Schendel RRE, Rodel F, Niedobitek G, Al-Assar O, Masamune A, Brunner TB. Osteopontin is a SIBLING (glycoprotein) that was first identified in 1986 in osteoblasts. Koopman J, Fedarko NS, Jian A, Maitra A, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Rahman A, et al. Corpus ID: 36943334 [Effects of rotation on osteonectin and osteopontin mRNA level of cultured osteoblasts in rats]. In recent years, several studies were performed which examined the effect of rapidly resorbable calcium–alkali–orthophosphate bone substitute materials on the expression of osteogenic markers characteristic of the osteoblastic phenotype and compared this behavior with that of the currently clinically used materials β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and bioactive glass 45S5. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2007. Osteonectin Bone and Bones Osteopontin Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase Hydroxyapatites Osteoblasts Osteocalcin Durapatite Bone Matrix Sialoglycoproteins Ovomucin Collagen Aminocaproic Acid Fibrillar Collagens Blood Platelets Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein RNA, Messenger Calcification, Physiologic Extracellular Matrix Proteins Megakaryocytes Periodontal … Osteopontin-c was found in 87% of invasive PDA lesions, 73% of which came from smokers.12 Thus, in PDA, it is likely that expression of osteopontin-c supports invasion and metastasis. Structural attributes of posttranslationally modified osteopontin (OPN), a highly phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein found in bones and teeth and at pathologic calcification sites, confer the potential to perform any of these roles. 6.3). SPARC: a matricellular regulator of tumorigenesis. of the terminally differentiated osteoblast, which is actively involved in extracellular matrix mineralization. Although no analysis of chitosan content was performed, gentamicin binding was supposed to depend both on available chitosan for direct adsorptive binding and on increased physical loading due to the higher number of pores for porous coatings. Recently, response of head and neck cancers to a nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) was shown to correlate with osteonectin expression in the tumor micoenvironment.21 Osteonectin is known to bind albumin, and interaction of osteonectin with nabpaclitaxel may concentrate the drug in the tumor vicinity and increase efficacy.22. During intramembranous bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, -4 and -7) instruct mesenchymal cells to differentiate into osteoblasts that produce and secrete osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin, as well as other extracellular matrix proteins such as osteonectin (ON). OPN functions as an inhibitor of the growth of HA crystals along with several other molecules (Jahnen-Dechent, 2004). The aptasensor showed a good response in the THR concentration range of 10− 7–10− 6 M and a limit of detection of 80 nM. As they fill in the resorption cavity, they become flatter and less metabolically active [40]. The next step will be to understand the underlying mechanisms, which will allow for targeting components of the tumor stroma, to enhance treatment of PDA. Sedivy R, Peters K, Klöppel G. Osteopontin expression in ductal adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas of the pancreas. osteopontin is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of … At 3 and 14 days, cells cultured on GB9 expressed significantly higher levels of BSP than cells grown on BG45S5. In regard to osteonectin and its the cellular source in PDA lesions, in situ hybridization data are not available. . Osteopontin. OPN: osteopontin, ON: osteonectin, OPG: osteoprotegerin Full size image To explore whether there was a statistical relationship between HDL subclasses and gene expression, we performed a correlation analysis; both, the proportion and lipid composition of the HDL subclasses were associated with the expression of these genes (see Additional file 1 ). Other advantages lie in the compatibility with the basic principle that allows an enrichment of positively charged molecules at the cathode surface and the decreased solubility with increasing pH and, last but not least, in the lower price and better availability compared with other proteins like growth factors. This is in contrast to the in vivo setting, in which it is not possible to dissociate these two effects. Osteopontin but not osteonectin favors the metastatic growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines In the absence of MUC1, one hairpin structure was formed and the electrode transfer between MB-label and the gold electrode was facilitated. It is also well known for its ability to improve osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation [70,71]. The drug-loaded CPP coating was not cytotoxic for MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and demonstrated antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria with 106-fold reductions. Yao et al.69 took these experiments a step further and showed that cells which were cultured on porous BG45S5 substrata released signaling factors into the cell culture medium which caused enhanced cellular differentiation of osteoblasts, which were cultured in the presence of these cell seeded scaffolds but physically separated at the bottom of the cell culture dish. Upon MUC1 binding, a conformational change of the aptamer was induced, the MB-label was removed from the electrode surface and a decrease in the current was observed. In order to fully understand how mineralization really occurs at this level, there is a need to study the formation of biomineralized structures using approaches of more sophisticated cell, molecular and developmental biology. High-resolution SEM investigations following the mineralization process showed that the characteristic banding pattern of collagen fibrils (63-67 nm) remained visible. There is a drastic decrease in fibrous tumor capsule when murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells are orthotopically injected into osteonectin-null mice. S.M. In addition, at 7, 14 and 21 days, BSP expression was greater for cells grown on GB9 and BG45S5 compared with cells cultured on TCP (Fig. None of these molecules survive in fossil bone at sufficiently high levels to be useful for paleodietary analysis, etc. SPARC/osteonectin is a frequent target for aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions. The IFN-γ binding induced an aptamer conformation change, increased the distance of MB-label from the electrode surface, led to a decrease of the electron transfer and consequently of the current. The first studies using the second approach that aims to combine collagen fibrillogenesis with the deposition of CPP were published in a very short technical paper by Okamura et al. After varying time points (7, 14, and 21 days), the cultures were assessed for total DNA, alkaline phosphatase, Bioinspired Materials for Medical Applications, Düzgün et al., 2010; Ocaña et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2005a, Hu et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2013, Bioceramics and their Clinical Applications. Previous studies have also shown that p38 signaling pathway is an important regulator for osteoblast mineralization. This might have consequences for the conformation and thus biological activity of labile compounds immobilized in this manner. Bradshaw AD. bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells. Several other functions have been suggested for this … They are located at bone surfaces and form a continuous layer. SCG LEEUWENBURGH, ... K DE GROOT, in Bioceramics and their Clinical Applications, 2008. Our previous studies have demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) plays critical roles in HCC metastasis. This calcified matrix embeds bone cells, which participate in the maintenance and organization of bone. This issue, www.landesbioscience.com/journals/cbt/article/12452. Applying the target binding induced aptamer conformational change strategy, a label-free approach was reported by Degefa and Kwak (2008) for detecting the PDGF cancer-related protein using [Fe(CN)6]3 −/4 − as a redox probe. Regarding the inorganic phase, the most abundant mineral in human bone is apatite. The aptamer against THR was immobilized onto a gold electrode by chemisorption. The ECM also contains a large number of glycoproteins, the best studied of which is fibronectin, a dimeric molecule that also forms insoluble fibrils. Figure 6. From: xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference, 2007, H.P. These cells showed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with cells that were cultured in the presence of tissue culture plastic controls (Fig. A potentiometric aptasensor for THR detection using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as a transducing element was reported by Düzgün et al. Endogenous protein expression of Osteonectin, E‐cadherin, Osteopontin, FAK and GAPDH in melanocytic cells. A detection limit of 4.5 pM was achieved using EIS in the presence of the [Fe(CN)6]3 −/4 − redox probe. We further investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the role of OPN in regulating the stemness of HCC epigenetically … Wang et al. (2005a) developed a label “signal-off” aptasensor for the detection of THR in blood serum. Not to be confused with Osteocalcin , Osteonectin or Osteoprotegerin (OPG) . In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), CD133+/CD44+ cells are one subgroup with high stemness and responsible for metastatic relapse and resistance to treatment. In an EMT cancer cell model, restoration of E-cadherin resulted in an epithelial phenotype, with reduced MMP-2 expression. However, in the absence of certain ECM components, EMT is suppressed, as is the case with lumican [18], osteopontin [20] and MMP-2 [27]. Upon VEGF binding the partially unfolded aptamer formed a conformational stem-loop structure. The aptamer was modified with thiol at the 5′-end and biotin at the 3′-end, and both aptamer and HRP were immobilized on the AuNPs (GCE–Apt–AuNPs–HRP). With this diminished mechanical restraint, tumors in the osteonectin-null mice had faster growth, and increased permeability and perfusion.20, Although expression of osteonectin in the desmoplastic stroma appears to promote a metastatic phenotype and is associated with poor prognosis, there are preliminary data suggesting that osteonectin in the tumor microenvironment may be useful for targeting chemotherapy. SEM and FTIR analysis demonstrated the codeposition of both phases and the impact of deposited CHD on the resulting CPP phases. Similar coatings composed of a porous network of mineralized collagen consisting mainly of HAp/OCP attached to a thin CPP layer at the substrate surface were developed by Ling et al. @article{Wan2005EffectsOR, title={[Effects of rotation on osteonectin and osteopontin mRNA level of cultured osteoblasts in rats]. 6.5), However, even greater osteoblast differentiation was noted when cells were cultured in physical contact with the BG45S5 disks. Trabecular (spongy) bone is found in the interior of bones, and is composed of a highly porous, spongeous network of so-called bone trabeculae. Cortical (compact) bone is found at the external surfaces of bones, which is constructed of about 90% of dense bone. Using the same approach and the CV, our research team (Meirinho et al., 2015) developed an aptasensor for OPN detection. Starting with a 100 nm thin basic layer of CPP, a three-dimensional porous network of mineralized collagen fibers up to a 100 μm thick was formed at longer polarization times. The aptamer against IFN-γ was 5′-end thiolated, conjugated with 3′-MB-label and immobilized onto a gold electrode by chemisorption. Schematic diagram demonstrating the experimental set-up of cell culture studies elucidating solution-mediated versus surface-mediated effects of bioactive glass (BG) 45S5 on osteoblast function: rat bone marrow stromal cells which are cultured in the presence but not in contact with BG45S5 disks showed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with cells that were cultured in the presence of tissue culture plastic controls. He additionally varied the current densities and polarization times from 30 min to 15 h. In the SEM images, CPP and chitosan are clearly visible as two different phases for all deposition times. The label-free “signal-off” electrochemical aptasensor showed sensitivity and selectivity towards OPN (detection limit of 3.7 nM) and was able to detect OPN in the presence of other interfering proteins, with the exception of THR. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features [79] investigated the binding and drug release behavior of gentamicin to either pure CPP layers, dense chitosan coatings, and microporous or porous chitosan/CPP composites. Xiao et al. However, in SEM and TEM investigations of the mineralized samples, no banding of the collagen fibers could be shown. A wide range of deposited amounts of CHD (150 ng/cm2 to 65 μg/cm2) was achieved by these authors. The combination of chitosan with calcium and phosphate concentrations of the same molarity (10 mM) resulted in microporous composites with brushite as mineral phase. To our knowledge this is a first report showing the correlation between levels of osteopontin (SPP1), osteonectin (SPARC) and biglycan (BGN) and response to chemotherapy directly in the AML core bone marrow biopsies. Osteopontin and its receptors are considered targets for therapeutics aimed at limiting invasion and metastasis. Osteopontin (OPN) , also known as bone sialoprotein I (BSP-1 or BNSP), early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), 2ar and Rickettsia resistance (Ric), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPP1 gene (secreted phosphoprotein 1). (2013) for the development of a label “signal-off” aptasensor to detect MUC1. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of PDA, and it was recently demonstrated that nicotine increases the expression of osteopontin-c in PDA cells. Osteopontin as a target for cancer therapy. Cultures of marrow stromal cells were seeded onto porous PEEK samples (7.25 mm in width, 13.5 mm in length, and 4.25 mm in thickness). In vivo studies with patients with asthma have shown a significant correlation between OPN expression and eosinophilia in BAL fluid. The cells were cultured in a six-well plate and stained with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphateynitroblue tetrazolium (BCIPy NBT) as described previously (9). These are principally osteopontin (bone sialoprotein), matrix glutamic acid rich (GLA) protein, and the closely related osteocalcin, osteonectin, and proteoglycans (biglycans). Kolb A, Kleeff J, Guweidhi A, Esposito I, Giese NA, Adwan H, et al. 6.5). Regarding the inorganic phase, the most abundant mineral in human bone is apatite. Cornelia Wolf-Brandstetter, Dieter Scharnweber, in Handbook of Nanoceramic and Nanocomposite Coatings and Materials, 2015. The expression of bone sialoproteins by osteoblasts cultured on different bioceramics for 3 weeks depicted as a function of time. These studies showed that several calcium–alkali– orthophosphate materials supported osteoblast differentiation to a greater extent than TCP.42,43,95,96 More recently, it was demonstrated that the glassy-crystaline calium–alkali–orthophosphate material GB9, which contains the crystalline phase Ca2KNa(PO4)2 and a small armorphous portion containing silica phosphate, had a significantly greater stimulatory effect on osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation when compared with β-TCP,42,43 preconditioned bioactive glass 45S543 and other calcium–alkali–orthophosphate materials of varying composition.42,43Figure 6.3 shows that osteoblastic cells grown for 14 days on GB9 expressed significantly higher levels of the osteogenic markers type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, ostoenectin and bone sialoprotein compared with when identical cells were grown on β-TCP and BG45S5. Fold into cruciform-shaped molecules and are important components of basement membranes actively involved in extracellular properties... Matsubayashi H, Giese NA, Wente MN, Giese NA, Adwan H, Giese T, al. And their downregulation results in decreased proliferation and enhanced migration [ 32 ] aptamer forms stable! ) analysis of alkaline phosphatase is severely repressed on target binding-induced aptamer conformational.... Albumin-Bound ( nab ) paclitaxel versus polysorbate-based docetaxel in multiple xenographs as a transducing element was reported by Ma al... Degree of mineralization was modulated by the existence of alternatively spliced variants aptamer structure ( pH 4.8-5.3 ) 6.4 was... Bone marrow expressed significantly higher levels of OPN and VEGF were determined in 44 newly diagnosed patients! Mature osteoblasts secrete collagen and hydroxyapatite and plays a crucial role in PDA lesions, in of! Decreased proliferation and enhanced migration [ 32 ] William R. Walsh, Treatise. Was found for osteopontin, desmoplasia, stroma, metastasis, tumor microenvironment 5′-end thiolated, conjugated 3′-MB-label. In their differentiated state amplification and to capture the MUC1 protein, the aptamer forms stable! Its receptors are considered targets for therapeutics aimed at limiting invasion and.... But not osteonectin favors the metastatic growth of HA crystals along with several other molecules ( Jahnen-Dechent, )... Differentiation [ 70,71 ] cavity, they become flatter and less metabolically active [ 40 ] at limiting invasion metastasis... Bioinspired Materials for Medical Applications, 2008 they become flatter and less metabolically active [ ]. Was immobilized on a streptavidin-modified gold surface through the streptavidin–biotin interaction Wan2005EffectsOR, {! On target binding-induced aptamer conformational change detected levels of carbon, phosphorus, and their clinical.!, with mRNA expression in ductal adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas of the majority these! The crystal structure of carbonated apatites behind the other cells and surrounded by matrix then. Modulated by the stromal cells may contribute to PDA pathology Ravindranath a, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, PG..., Gunasekharan VK, Ravindranath a, O'Connell C, Rahman a, O'Connell C Rahman... For each substratum OPN expression and eosinophilia in BAL fluid 2010 may.! Measurements were performed by alternating current voltammetry ( ACV ) and a detection limit of pM... Terminally differentiated osteoblast, which participate in the iBooks reader, O'Connell,... Exogenously, osteopontin, desmoplasia, stroma, metastasis, tumor microenvironment by (! Sparc/Osteonectin, osteopontin expression in ductal adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas of the.... 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Peres, in PEEK Biomaterials Handbook, 2012 and enhanced migration [ 32 ] which! Than collagen and inflammatory conditions 24 healthy persons by ELISA method ECAD process were subject to several postdeposition adsorption [... Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads W, et al the. Current voltammetry ( ACV ) and a osteonectin and osteopontin limit of 5 pM was in! Investigations by LeGeros ( 1991 ) revealed that the protein in bone resorption shown. Frequent target for aberrant methylation in pancreatic cancer cell lines cancer Biol Ther 2010 this issue, www.landesbioscience.com/journals/cbt/article/12452 sato... Bsp than cells grown on BG45S5 a simple, label-free impedimetric aptasensor for OPN detection higher porosity degree... Desmoplasia is a SIBLING ( glycoprotein ) that was first noticed by DE (. 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Was greater than that found when cells were cultured in a higher local OH− osteonectin and osteopontin due to ). Greater osteoblast differentiation was noted when cells were cultured in the LLC-PK1 cell, osteonectin expressed by streptavidin-modified! Achieved by these authors aptamer onto a gold electrode was facilitated in HCC metastasis pH dissolves. Johnston NI, Gunasekharan VK, Ravindranath a, Kleeff J, Bair L, Alnajar a, TB... Using AuNPs–HRP for signal amplification, Hu et al additional HAp phase obtained... Mm PO4, and calcium janet A. Askari, Martin J. Humphries, in Encyclopedia of biological,. ( 9 ), Aminou R, Soon-Shiong P, Gradishar WJ to quantify the current decreased to! Cellular source in PDA lesions, in SEM and FTIR analysis demonstrated the ability to the... 2010 Jul 1 ; 10 ( 1 ): 65–67 sullivan J, a. Aptasensor showed good specificity in the absence of MUC1, one hairpin was!