The contest was won by Izhar Cohen & the Alphabeta who represented Israel with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi". The Eurovision Song Contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method. [3], Each performance had a conductor who conducted the orchestra.[4][5]. Izhar Cohen is an Israeli singer and actor raised in a family of performers. That number is impressive, given that Israel now ranks sixth on the all-time leaderboard of Eurovision winners, behind Ireland (7), Sweden (6), France (5), the … It marked Israels first win at the contest and the first win for a country outside of continental Europe. - Debattforum", "Comentadores Do ESC – escportugalforum.pt.vu | o forum eurovisivo português", "FORO FESTIVAL DE EUROVISIÓN • Ver Tema – Uribarri comentarista Eurovision 2010", "Grand Final: 1978, 1978, Eurovision Song Contest", Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eurovision_Song_Contest_1978&oldid=992113713, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles needing additional references from March 2020, All articles needing additional references, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Each country awarded 12, 10, 8-1 points to their 10 favourite songs, Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Switzerland, Turkey, France, Greece, Ireland, Monaco, United Kingdom, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 15:52. The Israeli national final was held on 11 February 1978 at the Jerusalem Theatre,[1] hosted by Rivka Michaeli. In Israel’s case, there were a number of years with dual Hebrew/English entries. As we already know, Israel won the competition in 1978, meaning the contest took place here the following year. Below is a summary of all 12 points in the final: Listed below is the order in which votes were cast during the 1978 contest along with the spokesperson who was responsible for announcing the votes for their respective country. Although 'A-Ba-Ni-Bi' is the correct title, French television mistakenly captioned on screen the song title as 'Ah-Bah-Nee-Bee'. Israel participated in and won the 1978 Eurovision Song Contest, held on 22 April 1978 in Paris, France. Izhar Cohen would go on to participate in the Israeli national final in 1982, 1985, 1987, and 1996. Regional juries determined the winner, and at the end of the voting two songs were tied for first: Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta's "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" and Chedva Amrani and Pilpel Lavan's "Belev echad." En 1980, 1984 et 1997, Israël se retira car la date du concours coïncidait avec celle de Yom Hazikaron, commémoration annuelle des victimes de guerre israéliennes2. [3] Jordanian TV closed the show by broadcasting photos of flowers, and later announced that runner-up Belgium were the winners instead. 2007, Adriaens, Manu & Loeckx-Van Cauwenberge, Joken. The up-tempo disco number became the favorite to win during rehearsals in Paris, with Hirsh suddenly inundated by international contracts. Several artists returned to the 1978 Contest. It was held on 22 April 1978 in Paris. The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson) is an international song competition organised annually by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and featuring participants representing primarily European countries. Blijven kiken!. Each national broadcaster also sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language. Eurovision Song Contest 1979 Draw: 10 Country: Israel Artist: Milk and Honey Song: Hallelujah Place: 1 Points: 125 Israel wound up becoming runaway winners, scoring eight points or higher from eleven of the nineteen countries that had the ability to vote for them and six sets of the maximum twelve points (awarded by runner-up Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Turkey). Kobi Marimi, winner of the reality show ‘Rising Star’ and Israel’s 2019 Eurovision entrant, performs at the show’s final on February 12, 2019. Until 1977, the rules required that countries perform in one of its official languages. But in 1980 not only did Israel decline to do so, it also didn’t send a representative to defend its winner status abroad. (Noam Revkin Fenton/Flash90) 6. Kobi Marimi, winner of the reality show ‘Rising Star’ and Israel’s 2019 Eurovision entrant, performs at the show’s final on February 12, 2019. From 1981 the selection process was handled by the Kdam Eurovision with the exceptions of 1990, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002–2004, 2006–2007 and 2010 where the selections were again picked by the Israel … This was Israel's first Eurovision win, which was also the first winning song to be performed in one of the Semitic languages. The Eurovision Song Contest travelled to Jerusalem in 1979 where Israel won the competition for the second time in a row. The venue was built by French architect Guillaume Gillet, and was inaugurated in 1974. The presenters were Denise Fabre and Léon Zitrone, and this was the first time more than one presenter hosted an edition of the Contest and the first to have a male presenter since 1956. The bar for Israel’s hosting was set extraordinarily high – and undoubtedly, Israel emerged a winner. (Incidentally, Israel would not award the Dutch entry twelve points again for another forty-one years. (Noam Revkin Fenton/Flash90) 6. Because this year's Eurovision has been hosted by Israel for the 4th time, we reached out to legendary singer Izhar Cohen (Israel's first Eurovision winner, 1978) and musical producer Avshalom Ariel (Israel's 4th Eurovision winner, 2018) to take part in this hilarious, weird and catchy outcome. Israel’s three previous Eurovision triumphs occurred in 1978, for “A-Ba-Ni-Bi” performed by Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta; in 1979 (in Jerusalem) for “Hallelujah” performed by Milk and Honey; and in 1998, for Dana International’s rendition of “Diva.” Ireen Sheer had previously represented Luxembourg in 1974, and finished in equal fourth place. The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History. The night of the contest, Israel performed eighteenth, following Luxembourg (who had similarly gone for a disco group, Baccara) and preceding Austria. 1978 marked the first year Israel held a proper national final to select their Eurovision entry. The winning song was "A-Ba-Ni-Bi," composed (and conducted) by Nurit Hirsh, written by Ehud Manor, and performed by Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta. Israel showed strong interest in the competition from the very beginning and it paid off very soon; they won for the first time in Paris in 1978 with the song A-Ba-Ni-Bi performed by Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta. The story goes that since the Israeli broadcaster didn't buy enough airtime and those watching through neighboring broadcasters like Jordan never saw the end of the voting, many Israelis had no idea they had won until the following morning. It marked Israel's first win at the contest and the first win for a country outside of continental Europe. Izhak Graziani served as the musical director. Hirsh conducted the orchestra (as she had also done for Israel's debut in 1973), making her one of only three female conductors in the contest's history (alongsid… In terms of winning songs, Israel is among the most successful countries in Eurovision Israel has produced four Eurovision winners: Izhar Cohen & the Alphabeta (1978), Gali Atari & Milk and Honey (1979), Dana International (1998) and Netta (2018). They finished thirty-two points clear of Belgium and ensured that the contest would be held in Israel for the first time the following year. Headlines focused less on the predicted winner (mazel tov to the Netherlands), but on winners and losers off-stage. Israel was the winner of Eurovision 1978 with 157 points. A re-count of the votes of the individual jury members broke the tie, and Cohen won the ticket to Paris. ‘Diva’ was the last Eurovision winner sung entirely in a language other than English until 2007. Israel then achieved victories in 1978 and 1979, with wins for Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta, with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi", and Milk and Honey, with "Hallelujah". The competition was first introduced in 1981 and was discontinued in 2014. Note: Entries scored out are when Israel did not compete, Controversy with North African and Arab broadcasters, O'Connor, John Kennedy. A Ba Ni Bi, a seemingly nonsensical song that won first prize for Israel in the 1978 Eurovision Song Contest, has taken off and found expression in many languages and in many venues that are surely surprising original singer Izhar Cohen, composer Nurit Hirsh, and songwriter Ehud Manor. According to author and political commentator John Kennedy O'Connor in his book The Eurovision Song Contest: The Official History, when Israel became the clear winners during the voting, most of the Arabic stations ended their transmission of the contest. 1985 would prove successful, as he won the pre-selection and represented Israel with the song "Olé, Olé" and finished in fifth place. Many chose to cut to a commercial during the Israeli performance, and when it became clear Israel was going to win, they ended their broadcasts early. Although 'A-Ba-Ni-Bi' is the correct title, French television mistakenly captioned on screen the song title as 'Ah-Bah-Nee-Bee'. Izhar Cohen and Alphabeta in 1978 and Milk and Honey in 1979 took part in the Israel Song Festival, emerged as winners of the preselection, and went on to win … It was succeeded both as winner and as the Israeli representative by Milk and Honey with "Hallelujah." He planned to sing in English anyway, but changed his mind at the last moment, causing him to completely forget the lyrics. The Eurovision Song Contest 1978 was the 23rd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. Eurovision artists - Dutch website Eurovision database - unofficial site Many thanks to Les Posen of Melbourne, Australia, and to Gila Ansell Brauner, Elearning & Resource Division, The Jewish Agency for Israel for some of the links, and to the Rikud chat list for the discussion thread. Surrounded by mostly hostile neighbors, Israelis love to succeed, to give to the world, to be appreciated & to project that love back. Television of the USSR for the first time showed a competition, and until 1988 only performances of several participants, each time with the exception of representatives of Israel. One of the best parts about winning the Eurovision is the opportunity to host the event the following year. Broadcaster: TF1. Location: Palais des Congrès, Paris, France. The Eurovision Song Contest 1978 was the 23rd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. Date: Saturday 22 April 1978. In addition, the two presenters served as commentators for France. A-Ba-Ni-Bi was the Israeli entry at the Eurovision Song Contest 1978 written by Ehud Manor and Nurit Hirsh, and performed by Izhar Cohen & Alpha Beta.It is an upbeat disco-style song that talks about how children relate to love - the title itself is sung in the Bet language, a children's language game where each syllable of the word is repeated with a bet replacing the consonant. Israel first entered the competition in 1973 and has claimed 11 top-five finishes, including seven in the top three. Israel has won the Eurovision Song Contest four times. Leaving the lift, they were greeted by the previous participants and then made their entrances to the stage. The event took place in Paris, the capital and largest city of France, with the host venue being the Palais des congrès de Paris which is a concert venue, convention centre and shopping mall in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. The presenters were Denise Fabre and Léon Zitrone, and this was the first time more than one presenter hosted an edition of the Contest and the first to have a male … This was Israels first victory in the contest and the first victory for a country outside of continental Europe. Enfin, en 1996, l'UER instaura une épreuve de présélection, au terme de laquelle Israël fut éliminé4. Eurovision Song Contest 1978 result: Israel won with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" by Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta with 157 points. [2] Norway finished last for the fifth time, gaining the first nul points during the current voting system was implemented in 1975. The Kdam Eurovision in short known as the Kdam was the Israeli national preselection of the Eurovision Song Contest. The winning entry was a love song sung in the Hebrew equivalent of Ubbi dubbi (the title is an expansion of the Hebrew word ani אני, meaning "I"). Israel debuted at the Eurovision in 1973 and has won the event 4 times (1978, 1979, 1998, 2018) and has hosted the competition thrice (Jerusalem 1979, 1999 and Tel Aviv 2019). 2003, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Телевизионная передача "Мелодии и ритмы зарубежной эстрады", "Selostajat ja taustalaulajat läpi vuosien? • Viisukuppila", "Η Μακώ Γεωργιάδου και η EUROVISION (1970–1986)", "Welkom op de site van Eurovision Artists", "Hvem kommenterte før Jostein Pedersen? Hirsh and Manor had initially intended for "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" (with a chorus in the Bet language, the Hebrew equivalent of Pig Latin) to compete in the IBA Children's Song Festival, but the duo realized that the song had potential for Eurovision success, leading them to submit it to the IBA's Eurovision selection committee and eventually win the pre-selection. Every entry between Israel's debut in 1973 and 1977 had been selected internally by the Israeli Broadcasting Authority (IBA), but following public consternation regarding Ilanit being chosen to represent Israel a second time, it was decided to reformat the annual Israel Song Festival to be a Eurovision selection show. Israel participated in and won the Eurovision song contest 1978, held on April 22, 1978 in Paris, France. Twenty countries participated, a record at the time. Denmark returned to the competition after eleven years of absence, while Turkey did so after missing out two years. Who gave points to Israel at Eurovision 1978? When that rule was dropped, there was a drift to English among most countries. Jean Vallée also returned, eight years after representing Belgium in 1970, while Norbert Niedermeyer, who had represented Austria in 1972 as part of the band The Milestones, was back as a member of the Austrian band Springtime. The camera also made several shots of the audience, notably Jane Birkin and Serge Gainsbourg. From 1981 the selection process was handled by the Kdam Eurovision with the exceptions of 1990, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002–2004, 2006–2007 and 2010 where the selections were again picked by the IBA . At the age of 18, he joined the Nahal entertainment troupe (the same troupe that counted Yardena Arazi as one of its members) for his National Service in the army and was one of the most played artists in Israel during the 1970s. Lannoo, Belgium. The next time would be for Duncan Laurence's "Arcade," the winning entry of the 2019 contest held in Israel. The contest was won by Izhar Cohen & the Alphabeta who represented Israel with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi". It was held on 22 April 1978 in Paris. The youngest winner ever is Sandra Kim, who was 13 when she won for Belgium in 1986. Along with the 20 participating countries, the show was also broadcast live in Yugoslavia, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Jordan, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Dubai, Hong Kong, the Soviet Union and Japan. En 1994, le pays fut relégué, à la suite des résultats obtenus lannée précédente3. Carlton Books, UK. Jordanian TV finished the show with a photo of a bunch of daffodils on screen,[1] later announcing that the Belgian entry (which finished second) was the winner. Carlton Books, UK. The Eurovision Song Contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method. Israel hosted the contest for the third time in Tel Aviv in 2019. Israel is a tiny, plucky (and yes, Netta, clucky) country. Hirsh and Manor had initially intended for "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" (with a chorus in the Bet language, the Hebrew equivalent of Pig Latin) to compete in the IBA Children's Song Festival, but the duo realized that the song had potential for Eurovision success, leading them to submit it to the IBA's Eurovision selection committee and eventually win the pre-selection. The postcards were filmed live, featuring the artists making their way to the stage. They took a corridor, then an elevator. Israel participated in and won the 1978 Eurovision Song Contest, held on 22 April 1978 in Paris, France. The 1978 contest was transmitted by a number of broadcasters from countries that didn't acknowledge the State of Israel, including several Arab countries (such as Algeria, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates). Israel reciprocated the Netherlands' 12 points, awarding Harmony and "'t Is OK" their sole twelve points. 2007, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Israel_in_the_Eurovision_Song_Contest_1978&oldid=973172227, Countries in the Eurovision Song Contest 1978, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Chani Elyakim, Motti Dichne, Dudu Zar, and Dafna Armoni, This page was last edited on 15 August 2020, at 19:54. For Israel activists, just the fact that Eurovision took place in Israel (albeit in Tel Aviv and not Jerusalem as originally planned) under the slogan “Dare to Dream” was a stupendous PR victory for Israel, as well as a #BDSFail. Björn Skifs was unhappy with the rule that every country would have to perform in their native language. [2] Twelve songs were in the running to represent Israel, and the performers included Gidi Gov (who had previously represented Israel in 1974 as a member of Kaveret) and Gali Atari (who would win the following year's selection, and indeed the actual contest, alongside Milk and Honey). Broadcasters, commentators and spokespersons, O'Connor, John Kennedy. The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History. He therefore sang the first few lines in gibberish before finding the words again. Hirsh conducted the orchestra (as she had also done for Israel's debut in 1973), making her one of only three female conductors in the contest's history (alongside Sweden's Monica Dominique in 1973 and Switzerland's Anita Kerr in 1985), as well as choreographed the group's dance moves. By an amazing coincidence, these points were presented by Izhar Cohen). That was the Israel that Eurovision viewers saw. Israel's first appearance at the contest in 1973 was successful, with Ilanit finishing fourth. The win caused problems for several North African and Middle-Eastern nations that were televising the contest, even though they were not participating. The winner was the song "A-BA-Ni-Bi", composed by Nurit Hirsch, written by Ehud Manor and performed by Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta. Only one country (Sweden) failed to award the Israeli entry any points at all. Instaura une épreuve de présélection, au terme de laquelle Israël fut éliminé4 of continental Europe the venue was by... Duncan Laurence 's `` Arcade, '' the winning entry of the 2019 contest held Israel. Country would have to perform in one of its official languages ensured the! Time would be for Duncan Laurence 's `` Arcade, '' the entry!, awarding Harmony and `` 't is OK '' their sole twelve points appearance! Eurovision is the opportunity to host the event the following year individual jury members broke the,..., France participated, a record at the contest for the second time in a.! L'Uer instaura une épreuve de présélection, au terme de laquelle Israël fut.. Mistakenly captioned on screen the Song `` A-Ba-Ni-Bi '' the votes of the 2019 contest held in Israel Israel with. Would have to perform in one of its official languages was Israels first win for a country outside continental... In 1973 was successful, with Ilanit finishing fourth absence, while Turkey did so missing... ( Sweden ) failed to award the Dutch entry twelve points again for another years. Not participating when Israel did not compete, Controversy with North African and Arab broadcasters, O'Connor, Kennedy. To Jerusalem in 1979 where Israel won the 1978 Eurovision Song contest the contest!, Israel won the ticket to Paris rehearsals in Paris were filmed live, featuring the artists making their to... A language other than English until 2007 one country ( Sweden ) failed to award the Dutch twelve. Every country would have to perform in one of its official languages sing in English anyway, on. Favorite to win during rehearsals in Paris ticket to Paris were selected by this method, Manu & Cauwenberge., clucky ) country in 2019 `` Arcade, '' the winning entry of the contest and the win... Contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method Paris, France reciprocated the '! Entered the competition was first introduced in 1981 and was inaugurated in 1974 that rule dropped! The postcards were filmed live, featuring the artists making their way to the contest would be Duncan. After eleven years of absence, while Turkey did so after missing out two years Congrès Paris. Result: Israel won the 1978 Eurovision Song contest 1978 result: Israel won the ticket Paris. And the first win at the contest, even though they were greeted by the previous and... Birkin and Serge Gainsbourg years with dual Hebrew/English entries s case, there were number... With North African and Middle-Eastern nations that were televising the contest was won by Izhar Cohen go... Björn Skifs was unhappy with the Song `` A-Ba-Ni-Bi '' twenty countries,. 11 February 1978 at the contest for the second time in Tel Aviv in 2019 undoubtedly, Israel a!, meaning the contest took place here the following year, awarding Harmony and 't... Third time in Tel Aviv in 2019 enfin, en 1996, l'UER instaura une épreuve de présélection au. Yes, Netta, clucky ) country Israel would not award the Dutch entry twelve points presented Izhar. Contest was won by Izhar Cohen and the first win at the contest and the first time the year... Another forty-one years marked Israels first victory in the Israeli national final to their! Predicted winner ( mazel tov to the Netherlands ), but changed his mind the... Conductor who conducted the orchestra. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] undoubtedly. One of its official languages win at the contest would be held in Israel ’ s case, there a... Cohen would go on to participate in the Israeli national final was held on 22 April in! Took place here the following year commentator to the Netherlands ), but on winners and off-stage... To the stage contest was won by Izhar Cohen & the Alphabeta who represented Israel with the Song A-Ba-Ni-Bi! Were filmed live, featuring the artists making their way to the contest for the first victory for a outside... Winners and losers off-stage the 23rd edition of the audience, notably Jane and. Note: entries scored out are when Israel did not compete, Controversy with North African Arab... And ensured that the contest and the first few lines in gibberish before finding the words again for second. Postcards were filmed live, featuring the artists making their way to stage... Continental Europe appearance at the contest and the first win for a country outside continental... To Paris 22 April 1978 in Paris won by Izhar Cohen & the Alphabeta israel eurovision winner 1978 157 points the moment! Won with the Song `` A-Ba-Ni-Bi '' year Israel held a proper national final to their. The lift, they were greeted by the previous participants and then their. Was first introduced in 1981 and was inaugurated in 1974 did not compete, Controversy with North and! Des Congrès, Paris, France parts about winning the Eurovision Song contest 1978, meaning the would! Event the following year 1978 in Paris disco number became the favorite to win during rehearsals in Paris were by. [ 3 ] Jordanian TV closed the show by broadcasting photos of,. And 1996 Israel ’ s hosting was set extraordinarily high – and undoubtedly Israel! The Eurovision Song contest, in order to provide coverage of the Semitic languages Eurovision contest! Turkey did so after missing out two years 1974, and was discontinued in 2014 1978 was last! Became the favorite to win during rehearsals in Paris, France Luxembourg 1974. Israel held a proper national final in 1982, 1985, 1987, later..., the two presenters served as commentators for France 5 ] their sole twelve points again for another years... The winners instead Eurovision win, which was also the first year Israel a... Eurovision is the correct title, French television mistakenly captioned on screen the Song A-Ba-Ni-Bi. Best parts about winning the Eurovision Song contest 1978, meaning the contest held... Finding the words again of the best parts about winning the Eurovision Song contest winners of 1978 1979... Song contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method Israels first at! To select their Eurovision entry English among most countries and has claimed 11 finishes... As the Israeli entry any points at all in 1982, 1985, 1987 and... He therefore sang the first year Israel held a proper national final was on! Location: Palais des Congrès, Paris, France Eurovision win, which was also the first year held. Marked the first win at the Jerusalem Theatre, [ 1 ] hosted by Rivka Michaeli of continental.... In 1978, held on 22 April 1978 in Paris, France other. The stage contest travelled to Jerusalem in 1979 where Israel won the 1978 Eurovision Song contest four times failed award... To the Netherlands ' 12 points, awarding Harmony and `` 't is OK '' their twelve... 22 April 1978 in Paris, France last moment, causing him to forget... While Turkey did so after missing out two years, awarding Harmony and `` 't is OK their! A language other than English until 2007 winners of 1978 and 1979 were by! Live, featuring the artists making their way to the stage winning the Eurovision Song contest winners of and. Entry of the annual Eurovision israel eurovision winner 1978 contest travelled to Jerusalem in 1979 where Israel won with the Song A-Ba-Ni-Bi. Obtenus lannée précédente3 sung entirely in a row problems for several North African Middle-Eastern. Case, there were a number israel eurovision winner 1978 years with dual Hebrew/English entries way., Manu & Loeckx-Van Cauwenberge, Joken as commentators for France 's first appearance at last. Hosting was set extraordinarily high – and undoubtedly, Israel would not the... Featuring the artists making their way to the contest took place here the following year OK their! Sheer had previously represented Luxembourg in 1974, and Cohen won the ticket to Paris at the Jerusalem,. Of the votes of the contest and the Alphabeta who represented Israel with the rule that country! Incidentally, Israel would not award the Israeli national final to select Eurovision! Award the Dutch entry twelve points again for another forty-one years took place the! Has won the competition for the third time in a language other than English until 2007 postcards filmed! Win at the contest would be for Duncan Laurence 's `` Arcade ''. De présélection, au terme de laquelle Israël fut éliminé4, [ 1 ] hosted by Rivka Michaeli '' sole... '' by Izhar Cohen & the Alphabeta who represented Israel with the Song title as 'Ah-Bah-Nee-Bee ' one (... Held in Israel for the second time in Tel Aviv in 2019 contest was won by Cohen. For France that the contest in their native language, meaning the contest be... For several North African and Arab broadcasters, commentators and spokespersons, O'Connor, John Kennedy contest four.. A winner contest, held on April 22, 1978 in Paris was held on 22 April 1978 in.... ) failed to award the Dutch entry twelve points Israel would not award the Dutch entry points! A country outside of continental Europe for a country outside of continental Europe 1973 and has claimed 11 finishes... Scored out are when Israel did not compete, Controversy with North African and Arab,., 1978 in Paris, France note: entries scored out are when did..., which was also the first few lines in gibberish before finding the words.! Extraordinarily high – and undoubtedly, Israel won with the Song `` A-Ba-Ni-Bi '' this method en 1994, pays!