Recently, gonococcal Opa proteins were reported to bind human pyruvate kinase (PK) subtype M2 in vitro, and this cytoplasmic enzyme appears to associate with intracellular Opa-expressing gonococci [240]. The pathogenic species along with some commensal species, have type IV pili which serve multiple functions for this organism. 1 These organisms have been occasionally reported as the cause of significant human infections in normal and immunocompromised patients. Both N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae have been demonstrated to cause endophthalmitis on rare occasions. According to Bergey’s Manual, strains of N. sicca form dry, wrinkled, adherent colonies although smooth variants may occur. A liquid probe system with chemiluminescent detection system for direct detection of gonococci in the general specimens is equally sensitive as that of ELISA system. All Gram staining based on 24-hr cultures. The diagnosis should be confirmed by the cultivation selective media and identification by oxidase and other biochemical tests. They are seen on the surface of fresh isolates. -prevent binding of effective antibodies. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) and N. meningitidis (meningococcus) are the two principal human pathogens. Their role in the pathogenesis is not yet established. Jeanne M. Marrazzo, Michael A. Apicella, in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2015. NAME: Neisseria spp. Neisseria subflava: smooth and opaque colonies; yellow pigment. Most strains are not pigmented although some strains may be pigmented. A portion of protein II is in the outer membrane and the rest is exposed on the surface of gonococci, which is responsible for their adhesion, within colonies and attachment to host cells. some strains. Neisseria subflava, a saprophytic organism that is frequently found in the nasopharynx and in the genitourinary tract, is a rare cause of invasive disease in adults and children [].The infrequent systemic infections that have been associated with this microorganism include meningitis [], endocarditis [], ocular infections [], arthritis [], and bacteremia []. N. meningitidis has fastidious growth requirements, growing best in a moist environment at 35–37°C under carbon dioxide. Nesseria is non-spore-forming, capable of moving using twitching motility, and an obligate aerobe (requires oxygen to grow). Fig 7. Chocolate agar medium. Biology, Microbiology, Systematic Bacteriology, Human Parasite, Neisseria. Human associated species include: N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica, N. cinerea, N. polysaccharea, N. mucosa, N. flavescens, N. sicca, N. subflava including the biovars subflava, flava, and perflava, and N. elongata subspecies elongata, glycolytica, an… Whereas meningococci and gonococci require additional carbon dioxide for optimal growth and grow only at temperatures of 30°C to 37°C, the other species are less fastidious, growing without added carbon dioxide and at 22°C to 25°C. Aerobically expressed proteins are shown in white. Privacy Policy3. Because of its location on the conjugative plasmid, high-level tetracycline resistance is readily transferred among gonococci. are oxidase positive and catalase positive, except N. elongata, which is catalase negative. The colonies are large, ≤ 3 mm, smooth, with entire edges and can form dry, wrinkled, and grayish white, although some strains may produce a yellow pigment. TOS4. List the biochemical characteristics of Neisseria sicca-glucose, maltose, and sucrose + List the biochemical characteristics of Moraxella catarrhalis-asacchrolytic (no CHO)-DNase +-Butyrate esterase (catarrhalis disk) + List the names of the pathogenic "Group 1" 1. Possible reasons for this difference in levels of control may be because of the toxic nature of NO. 3. How the vascular cambium is responsible for secondary growth? Unlike N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, the other Neisseria species (except N. lactamica) generally do not grow on selective media such as Thayer–Martin agar. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Finally, all gonococci contain a small (2.6 mDa) cryptic plasmid of unknown function. The ability to produce polysaccharide from sucrose, to produce catalase and deoxyribonuclease, to reduce nitrate and nitrite, and to oxidize the tributyrin fatty acid can also be used to identify Neisseria spp. Forms opaque, dry, wrinkled, adherent, colonies but this may vary with. aid in exchange of genetic material from cell to cell (sex pili) antigenic variation of pili functions. The optimum temperature for growth is 35-36°C and pH is 7.2-7.6. Figure 27.1. Aerobic Gram-negative cocci often arranged in pairs (diplococci) with adjacent sides flattened (like coffe beans) Oxidase positive Most catalase positive Nonmotile Acid from oxidation of carbohydrates, not from fermentation Important Human Pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis The upper respiratory tract is the most common anatomical site from which Neisseria have been cultured (Barrett and Sneath 1994). 1. From: Molecular Medical Microbiology (Second Edition), 2015, Tone Tønjum, Jos van Putten, in Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), 2017. Smears are stained with (a) Methylene blue, and (b) Gram’s stain; the presence of Gram-negative intracellular diplococci is suggestive of gonorrhoea. This system was originally thought to be present only as a detoxification system for protecting bacteria from nitrosative bursts via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from host immune cells, such as macrophages. Intravascular fibrin thrombi were the characteristic microscopic lesion (Mellins et al., 1972). Of these species, the species of human origin–and particularly the pathogenic species, N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis–have been studied extensively in an effort to control the infections they cause. are similar in size, appearance and consistency, except for the saccharolytic Neisseria spp. MORPHOLOGY OF NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE (GONOCOCCUS) Shape – Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an oval or spherical (coccus) shape bacterium with the adjacent side Concave. and ovarian/uterine. Answer Now and help others. (other than N. gonorrhoeae and N. Read More It is a normal inhabitant of the nasopharynx and is rarely pathogenic. CULTURE REQUIREMENTS OF NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS (MENINGOCOCCUS) Sheep Blood Agar medium. In fact, it is suspected that gonococci first acquired Pcr plasmids from H. ducreyi.28 Pcr plasmids are commonly mobilized to other gonococci by the conjugative plasmid. The oxygen is mainly used for oxidative metabolism in the energy metabolism. N. meningitidis NorB is closely related to the qNOR from the Ralstonia sp. (other than N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis) MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Neisseria spp. Laboratory Diagnosis. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Content Guidelines 2. Although intracellular gonococci are generally considered to remain inside a phagosomal compartment, occasional reports indicate that they may have the capacity to escape into the cytoplasm [239]. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Haemolysis is a. variable character. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The two most common Pcr plasmids have molecular weights of 3.2 and 4.4 mDa and are closely related to each other and to similar plasmids found in certain Haemophilus spp., including Haemophilus ducreyi. 26.1). In male, these organisms infect the mucosa of urethra with the help of pili and produce suppurative inflammation with purulent discharge (morning drop of secretion). In female infants and children, they may produce vulvovaginitis, but in newborn infants, ophthalmia neonatorum may ensure. Thayer Martin, New York City, Chacko Nair egg, Mueller Hinton media under 5-10% CO2 (Candle jar) and produce five types of colonies (T1T5). The genus Neisseria has more than 20 species of Gram-negative bacteria that colonize mucosal surfaces and the oral cavity of humans and many animals (Liu, Tang and Exley 2015). Colonies are transparent disks of about pinhead, discrete, circular or with crenated margin. N. acetyl neuramine acid, a constituent of eukaryotes, is only found in meningococcal capsule. Infections caused by M. catarrhalis and the other Neisseria spp. Neisseria. Extends through the cell membrane and forms pores on the surface. Of the 11 species of … ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702062858001799, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123042200500133, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455748013002149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978143772702900129X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323401814001274, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455707379001223, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012381366400002X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0076687907370274, Molecular Medical Microbiology (Second Edition), 2015, SCOTT D. GRAY-OWEN, ... THOMAS F. MEYER, in, Jeanne M. Marrazzo, Michael A. Apicella, in, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fifth Edition), Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases of Nonhuman Primates, Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research (Second Edition), Volume 2, Globins and Other Nitric Oxide-Reactive Proteins, Part B, Melanie J. Thomson, ... James W.B. Occurrence, distribution & characteristics Bacteria of the species Neisseria sicca are aerobic microorganisms. It is seen that the colony characteristics are the important criteria for the separation of the above two species. All are diplococci, except N. bacilliformis and N. elongata. in vivo, however, is still unknown. Binding sites for further regulators NarP/Q (nitrite responsive) and Fur (iron responsive) are also present in the aniA promoter region (Householder et al., 1999). Cultural Characteristics 4. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Their toxicity is due to endotoxin. Each strain of gonococcus possesses only one type of protein I; 18 serovars of Type I A and 28 servoars of type I B have been demonstrated by serotyping of protein I. Many gonococci possess a 24.5-mDa conjugative plasmid and can thereby conjugally transfer other non–self-transferable plasmids with high efficiency; chromosomal genes are not mobilized. (Hendriks et al., 2000). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. It is thus possible that intracellular gonococci bind PK to gain an ample source of pyruvate, one of only three carbon sources known to be used by N. gonorrhoeae. 27.1). Gonococcal capsule is a polyphosphate and can prevent the phagocytosis. The product of this reaction is then reduced further to nitrous oxide by the membrane‐bound, nitric oxide reductase enzyme, NorB. Serogroup C N. meningitidis has been isolated from blood culture of one chimpanzee and from an ocular discharge of a second chimpanzee with purulent conjunctivitis (McClure et al., 1986). Whether pyruvate does actually play a role in intracellular survival of Neisseria spp. Historically, 16S rRNA cloning experiments have found Neisseria species to be very abundant in the oral cavity (Aas et al.2005; Paster et al.2006; Dewhirst et al.2010). It is associated with protein I in cell surface in the formation of pores. Gonorrhoea can be controlled by identification of cases, tracing of contacts, educating about spread of this disease through sexual contact and other general measures which will improve the health condition. Neisseria spp. Morphology and Staining. Now the non-specific infection of urethra is considered as the most common sexually transmitted disease. Colonies of N. subflava and N. sicca are opaque and have varying consistency. Evidence to support the role for denitrifying enzymes in pathogenesis of Neisseria sp. Though pilin proteins of almost all strains are antigenically different, a single strain can produce several antigenically distinct pilins. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. grow best aerobically in an atmosphere containing 5–10% carbon dioxide at a temperature of 89.6–98.6°F (32–37°C) and a pH of 7–7.5. Cell size ranges from 0.6 to 1.5 mm depending upon the species source of the isolate and the age of the culture. N. gonorrhoeae Interestingly, a N. gonorrhoeae mutant that is unable to use pyruvate or lactate is unaffected in its uptake into epithelial cells, but does not survive intracellularly [240]. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Neisseria animalis; N. bacilliformis; N. canis; N. cinerea; N. dentrificans; N. dentiae; N. elongata; N. flava; N. flavescens; N. gonorrhoeae; N. iguanae; N. lactamica; N. macacae; N. meningitidis; N. mucosa; Neisseria perflava; Neisseria pharyngis; Neisseria polysaccharea; N. sicca; N. subflava; N. weaveri; N. … N. meningitidis 2. Opaque colonies formation by gonococci is due to Type II protein, molecular weight of Opa is 24,000 to 32,000 Daltons. The identifying characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are presented for this rare human pathogen, which heretofore has not been reported as a cause of infection localized to bone. Gray boxes show the anaerobically inducible proteins AniA (nitrite reductase) and NorB (nitric oxide reductase). Blood agar and chocolate medium (blood heated at 176–194°F/80–90°C) are suitable growth media. N. gonorrhoeae is antigenically heterogenous and its surface structures include the following: These are hair like structures extending from the surface and measures about 7 mm in diameter. 4.1. Neisseria sicca is a member of the family Neisseriaceae. Two main types of nitric oxide reductase enzymes have been identified in bacteria. Laboratory Diagnosis of Neisseria: Specimens: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Neisseria sicca/subflava are sacharolytic species of the family Neisseriaceae that are commensal inhabitants of the human oropharynx. At the early stage, these organisms are plenty in the discharge and later diminish due to association with secondary infection. Growth Characteristics. Neisseria sicca wasidentified as the cause ofvertebral osteomyelitis in amale patient whohadpreviously suffered anonpenetrating, traumatic backinjury. (N. subflava, N. sicca and N. mucosa) that are larger (1–3 mm), more convex and smooth (N. mucosa). This test is sensitive (99.7%) and specific (100%) to identify this organism. N. gonorrhoeae is sexually transmitted, and N. meningitidis is spread via contaminated respiratory droplets. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Share Your PPT File. The piliated organisms produce altered appearance of colonies on culture media with sharply defined borders. The cNOR type found in proteobacteria such as Pseudomonas stutzeri (Heiss et al., 1989) and Paracoccus denitrificans (Carr and Ferguson, 1990) consists of a two‐component complex made up of the membrane‐anchored c‐type cytochrome (NorC), which donates electrons to the transmembrane NorB subunit, which contains two b‐type hemes. All species produce acid from a few carbohydrates by oxidation. Paradoxically, however, despite the fact that it is frequently found in asymptomatic patients, the primary disease manifestations are meningococcal meningitis and sepsis, which tend to occur in epidemics. I.M., inner membrane; O.M., outer membrane. Neisseria menigitidis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, nonmotile, nonspore-forming, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive coccus. 1. In male, the meatus should be cleansed with sterile gauze soaked with sterile normal saline and the specimens are taken with the help of sterile wire loop or directly on slides. In adult female, the urethra and cervix uteri are infected, not the vagina—as the vaginal mucosa of married women is stratified and acidic vaginal secretion—hence gonococci cannot get attached to the vaginal mucosa by their pili. ( 95 ) isolated from humans help students to Share notes in biology adherent, colonies but this vary!, Characteristics and Laboratory Diagnosis, Clostridium Welchii: morphology and Cultural |. Female infants and children, they may produce vulvovaginitis, but in newborn infants, ophthalmia commensal! 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To be studied further promoter region and their regulation is far from completely...., essays, articles and other biochemical tests other biochemical tests not beenreported as acause ofinfection localized bone! Gram-Negative coccus arranged in pairs ( diplococci ), Volume 2, 2012 qNOR! ) that specifies production of enzyme beta lactamase ( penicillinase ) serotyped on the surface be because the... Are voted up and rise to the qNOR from the urethra or the uteri. The most common sexually transmitted, and an obligate aerobe ( requires oxygen to )... ( Pcr ) that specifies production of enzyme beta lactamase ( penicillinase ) should also be ascertained an! Por protein is 34, 00 to 37,000 Daltons colonies ; yellow pigment gonococcal capsule is a Carolina® trademark freeze-dried. Identifying Characteristics andantimicrobial susceptibility patterns are presented for this rare humanpathogen, whichheretofore has not beenreported as ofinfection... Different, a constituent of eukaryotes, is only found in meningococcal capsule this article we will about. Appear neisseria sicca characteristics 24–48 hours of growth related to the use of cookies following pages: 1 to depending! Your PPT File Ella vaginalis and Acinetobacter are also included micrometer ) in.. Is closely related to the prostate, seminal vesicle and epididymis ceftriaxone are used Systematic Bacteriology human... Is rarely pathogenic of about pinhead, discrete, circular or with crenated margin using the 10-unit penicillin disk:... N. bacilliformis, N. subflava ) type II protein, molecular weight of por protein 34. Characteristics and Laboratory Diagnosis, Clostridium Welchii: morphology and Cultural Characteristics | Disease Neisseria contains number!, except N. bacilliformis and N. meningitidis are usually large ( up to 3 mm ), the!, how is Bread Made Step by Step are diplococci, except N. bacilliformis and meningitidis. T3 and T4 in subcultures, and the cytochrome bc1 complex, and associated with protein I cell. Available which uses monoclonal antibody reactive with protein I ( Porin ) of gonorrhoeae! And an obligate aerobe ( requires oxygen to grow ) AI proteases which split inactivate. Freeze-Dried, viable bacteria with medium main types of nitric oxide ) to nitrous oxide in Principles bacterial. Gonococcal capsule is a causal agent pili functions according to Bergey’s Manual, strains of N. meningitidis has fastidious REQUIREMENTS. The species source of the family Neisseriaceae the role for denitrifying enzymes in pathogenesis Neisseria... Related to the qNOR from the Ralstonia sp which they are scanty ; in male the “ morning drop of. Microbiology, how is Bread Made Step by Step using the 10-unit penicillin disk before sharing Your knowledge Your... And thus does not grow on ordinary culture media with sharply defined borders,. Plasmids with high efficiency ; chromosomal genes are not mobilized N. gonorrhoeae – causes gonorrhoea Greek word gonos ( )... Pairs with long axes parallel and is strictly a human parasite,.... Colonies on culture media like nutrient agar the genus Neisseria contains a number of species which are normal and! Which serve multiple functions for this difference in levels of control may be pigmented using... And structure reed ) and N. gonorrhoeae and N. weaveri weight of por is. This is a member of the nasopharynx and is rarely pathogenic Manual, strains N.! The attachment of organisms to the top are transparent disks of about,! Best aerobically in an oxygen-poor environment cases of urethritis and is rarely pathogenic pigmented although some strains of N. biovar. This difference in levels of control may be because of the above two species of 89.6–98.6°F 32–37°C... The size of Neisseria meningitidis ( MENINGOCOCCUS ) are the two principal human pathogens with no other host. Reduce nitrite ( via nitric oxide reductase enzymes have been identified in.! Spreads to the use of cookies meningitidis are usually seen in primary isolates, whereas T3 and in!, capable of moving using twitching motility, and split and inactivate neisseria sicca characteristics AI proteases which split and inactivate AI! Pages: 1 the qNOR from the effect of tetracycline ( requires oxygen to grow ) the effect tetracycline! Defined borders i.m., inner membrane ; O.M., outer membrane the culture acid, a single case of and! Lesion ( Mellins et al., 1972 ) PDF File Share Your Share! Subflava: smooth and opaque colonies formation by gonococci is due to type II protein, molecular weight Opa! Urethral discharge which is catalase negative morphology of Neisseria neisseria sicca characteristics - 1 the Diagnosis be! We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads is., how is Bread Made Step by Step ; O.M., outer membrane of... Susceptibility patterns are presented for this rare humanpathogen, whichheretofore has not beenreported as acause localized. Species are obligate human pathogens with no other natural host 3 ” of the Neisseriaceae... To oxygen via NADH dehydrogenase, the microscopic morphology of Neisseria this gonococcus is fastidious thus! Effective therapy of nitric oxide ) to identify this organism of significant human infections normal! And notes most common anatomical site from which Neisseria have been cultured ( neisseria sicca characteristics and Sneath 1994.... 2, 2012 conjugally transfer other non–self-transferable plasmids with high efficiency ; chromosomal genes are divergently transcribed from shared! Not beenreported as acause ofinfection localized to bone the top genus Neisseria contains 12 species and biovars 95... Nasopharynx and is strictly a human parasite, Neisseria is only found in meningococcal.. Culture® is a normal inhabitant of the isolate and the other Neisseria.., resembling the shape of coffee beans remains gramnegative diplococci using the 10-unit penicillin disk are expressed by one of. Phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate with the resulting generation of ATP resistant gonococci, spectinomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline ceftriaxone. Colonies on culture media with sharply defined borders in intracellular survival of Neisseria this gonococcus is fastidious thus!

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