The white, soft-bodied workers and nymphs remain in the galleries and are not seen unless the wood is broken open. Soldiers. Characteristic damage and galleries in wood made by the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). King. In fact, drywood termites and other termite species cause a collective $5 billion in property damage each year. simple as removing and discarding infested wood. This involves pumping hot air via propane heaters into infested wood and maintaining it long enough to eliminate the infestation. supplement egg production, the existence of more than one pair of functional reproductives in an Incisitermes minor colony -- even in older, larger ones -- remains unlikely. First report of. noted that some replacement reproductives may not have been fully melanized (darkened) and could have been overlooked in colonies in which no reproductives at all were found. According to Harvey (1934), Newly formed nymphs are fed predigested food by the adults or older nymphs because the new nymphs do not have the required symbiotic protozoa for cellulose digestion. At 15 years, there may be one or more supplementaries plus the The termite (Isoptera) fauna of South Carolina. They belong to the Kalotermitidae family (as are some dampwood termites) spanning several genera, and are considered primitive termites. organisms. Termite colony dynamics as revealed by the sex- and caste-ratios of whole colonies of, Messenger MT, Scheffrahn RH, Su N-Y. They can sometimes be found by carefully searching wood surfaces directly above where fecal Alates emerge from exit holes in the wood and are attracted to light (positive Krishna K. 1961. Instead, drywood termite workers are called "pseudergates" Along the wood surface, tiny “kick holes” open up to the outside, through which the termites periodically dump their droppings. The four adult castes of a termite are: Queen & King. Appearance. Drywood termites can chew through support beams, floors and walls, causing expensive home repairs. Winged adults are dark brown and about 1/2-inch long. The Journal of Economic Entomology 89: 922-934. Unlike the majority of insects termites miss the stage of case-worm. The actual size of the hole is about 1 mm. Furthermore, sound wood under Another characteristic feeding behavior is that Incisitermes minor will excavate towards the outer surface of the wood without actually breaking through it, thus leaving a paper thin, outer protective layer. Since the worker termites in these groups more or less look the same, the appearance of the reproductive caste (alates) and soldiers is important. King and queen of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). The nymph hatches directly from the egg. Above – Drywood termite pellets or droppings, called frass. This apparently was the case with three boat infestations in Florida where termites and damage were found in wood located outside the cabins. size of the fifth to seventh instar ranges from approximately 6.5 to 9. The workers are usually whitish, slow moving, and long bodied. Both species produce characteristic hexagonal fecal pellets but those of Incisitermes minor are larger (mean 0.98 mm long) than those of Cryptotermes brevis (mean 0.87 mm). After several sheddings a nymph will become a grown up termite. Above – A drywood termite soldier of Cryptotermes with phragmotic head. These estimates are subject to considerable variation of structural inspection reports conducted in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties in Figure 6. A survey Hagen HA. This usually takes three to four days and when completed they seal ... nymph Older nymph Reproductive nymph Reproductives after loss of wings King Queen Eggs Figure 2.Termite … obtain water either directly from the wood on which they feed or they produce it themselves Photograph by B.J. 169-186. Lewis VR, Haverty MI. Photograph by B.J. Western drywood termite alates fly during the day and in southern California swarm from late The king, however, does A generic revision and phylogeny of the family Kalotermitidae (Isoptera). They cannot molt successfully, unless aided by adult worker termites, which help them shed their outer skin by chewing it off. are distinct from most other species of Incisitermes. 1988. But the nature of the job is the same – false or not, the workers are the foraging cast of the colony. Termite larvae tend to look extremely similar to worker and nymph termites, except for their size. Its natural geographic range includes many areas of low precipitation and high summer temperatures. Habitat In Florida, Incisitermes minor has a spotty distribution from the Panhandle down to Miami and has been found on both coasts of the peninsula. Termites also have straight antennae where ants have bent antennae. Scheffrahn RH, Mangold JR, Su N-Y. Incisitermes minor is found in the coastal and lower montane regions of southern California. The duration of each instar is Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. The western drywood termite alate has an orange-brown Homeowners often mistake this for sawdust and are unaware of what these peculiar pellets actually are. primaries, 120 soldiers and 2,600 nymphs. In 2000, the entire 24 foot length of the bench top had pellets falling from it. This includes tandem running in which the female scurries about with the male in tow. Once the wood becomes too damaged, the colony gradually migrates to any connected/adjoining wood. The relative ease of intracontinental travel and commerce coupled with the fact that infested wood can be easily transported has resulted in isolated occurrences of Incisitermes minor infestations throughout the United States, including Florida. Infested wood sometimes appears sound, but upon close inspection These mysterious little termites, very fond of word, are always found on wooden items. The West Indian Drywood Termites are a creamy colour with either a creamish or blackish head. NYMPHS While in the nymph state, nymphs diverge into different castes: workers, soldiers, reproductives, and supplementary reproductives. Soldier: The soldiers have large, reddish-brown head capsules that are heavily sclerotized. not change much in appearance, although he does shrink a bit, and looks virtually the same as of wood such as a door, fence post, or dead branch on a tree, for example. Drywood termites. The soldiers have a small stub head (phragmotic head) and short mandibles, with which they use to block tunnels against intruders. The orange-brown head and smoky tinge to the wings of Incisitermes minor also distinguishes the alates from those of Cryptotermes brevis. widespread infestations, or when they are in inaccessible areas. The Rotorua-based Crown Research Institute continues to provide science that will protect all forests from damage caused by insect pests, pathogens and weeds. Only meant for large scale infestations involving multiple colonies in a house. The enlarged third antennal segment of Incisitermes minor and the phragmotic head of Cryptotermes brevis easily separate the soldiers of these two species. Research and Education Center, Incisitermes minor workers in structural lumber initiated a Figure 4. Above – A simplified diagram of how a drywood termite nest in a block of wood looks. Towards the east, Incisitermes minor's range extends to central Arizona and southward it extends into Baja California and Sonora, Mexico. antennal segment that is as long or longer than the fourth through sixth antennal segments head and pronotum, and a dark brown abdomen. Undigested matter in the alimentary canal passes through Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 17: 219-229. A typical subterranean termite colony can contain more than 500,000 termites, while a typical drywood termite colony only holds about 10,000. For instance, in Palm Springs, CA, swarming flights Above – The pseudergate nymphs of drywood termites already have poorly defined wing stumps, indicating their ability to turn into fertile adults under certain situations. All four of these treatments can be effective if done properly but each has its own set of Alates are 11 to 12.5 mm long, including the wings. Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. membranes so that each individual abdominal sclerite becomes visible. Control is sometimes as 1996. temperature, and the amount and nutritional quality of the host wood. Once the Swarmers, also known as reproductives, are young female and male winged termites. They belong to the Kalotermitidae family (as are some dampwood termites) spanning several genera, and are considered primitive termites. 4. Workers. Soldiers of mature, older colonies are large, ranging from 8 to more than 12 mm long These Nymphs, which comprise the majority of the colony, are wingless and cream colored. Drywood termites can be easily detected in the house if one may follow a proper method to find them. In urban and suburban areas, Incisitermes minor is often found in rose, Pyracantha, and Linnaean Ent. Figure 7. The wingless alates (dealates) crawl about in search of a mate and, if one is found, the pair engages in courtship activity. through oxidative metabolism (Becker 1969). some extremely dry conditions, such as those found in inland Southern California on hot, Cabrera, University of Florida. and mechanical probing this outer shell can be easily broken, revealing the underlying galleries Figure 9. Above – A drywood termite alate or reproductive, that has shed its wings. sound, dry wood in human-made structures, as well as furniture and other wooden items. bench top. Rearing and testing methods in the laboratory, pp. mixture of two different colonies. Control of drywood termites, pp. These droppings of drywood termites are characteristic of them, and can be usually seen accumulated as piles around infested wood. Becker VG. They can safely nest there for years, but normally things don’t work so smoothly in the wild. Drywood termites as the name suggests, prefer wood whose moisture content is low. 1858. and it does not provide residual protection. Part 2. The wings are dark with a somewhat smoky tint Drywood termites colonies are small, usually under 1000 individuals. What are drywood termites? sprawl is running rampant. Usage is limited. Drywood Termites: Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), West Indian drywood termite ... NYMPHS. species and has larger colonies than Cryptotermes brevis, the most common structure-infesting drywood Cabrera, University of Florida. have been 22 more confirmed records (Scheffrahn, unpublished data). Swarmers of drywood termites are 1/2 inch in length and may fly during the day or night depending on species. Pseudergates are not sterile or a terminal caste, therefore they maintain Scheffrahn RH, Su N-Y, Chase JA, Forschler BT. Weak fliers sustained short flights of only six to 10 feet at a time. Microwave devices produce thermal energy that is directed towards infested wood and literally the capability of molting into a soldier, a supplementary reproductive (neotenic), or an alate. Soldiers, alates and "workers" (pseudergates) of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Western drywood termite soldiers are recognized by the enlarged, club-like third Harvey (1934) provides a highly detailed description of the biology and life history of Incisitermes minor. from 10 to 15 mg. Western drywood termite nymphs have relatively large amounts of fat body However, he the entrance with a plug of gut contents. Alate of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). and the larger nymphs are very robust. As drywood termite infestations are often limited in scope, once the precise nest location has been identified, the treatment can then be carried out. However, some types of drywood and dampwood termites are able to molt without assistance. A heavily infested structure was reported in Toronto, Canada (Grace et al. Swarming usually occurs on bright, sunny days with temperatures between about 26.7 to 37.8°C 2000) and Louisiana (Messenger et al. approximately nine months, the queen begins laying eggs. The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen), is the most common structure-infesting drywood termite in the southwestern United States. Some galleries are spacious enough range extends up the coast to northern California and onward in a discontinuous distribution along the coasts of Oregon and Washington. Soldiers have long dark heads with two black mandibles. to accommodate large aggregations of termites while others are so narrow that termites can only But unlike dampwood termites, which require moist wood in which to nest in, drywood termites need wood that is dry, and therefore, have adapted well to human habitation, finding an ideal habitat in the dry wooden frames, beams, and furniture in homes and buildings. 1969. Their role is to feed the ot… The galleries of Incisitermes minor are typical of other drywood termite species, albeit a bit larger and more cavernous. The worker nymph stage usually consists of about 7 molts or instars, in which the nymph gradually assumes its adult morphology. Colonies are often found in the dead portions of California laurel, willow, Small swarming flights of drywood termites occur during April through July, frequently after rains. Grace JK, Cutten GM, Scheffrahn RH, McEkevan DK. soldiers and 1,600 nymphs. The insides of the galleries and chambers are often filled with their droppings, especially in old nests. phase-out of methyl bromide (at one time a widely used fumigant) has spurred the development The methods for controlling or treating drywood termites are not the same as for subterranean termites. You can recognize a dry wood termite infestation through these signs: #4: Droppings and placed on a laminate-covered plywood bench top not previously exposed to Incisitermes minor. Drywood Termites. Heat treatment involves In California, Incisitermes minor infestations are still sometimes referred to by some pest control operators as "Kalos" and designated with a "K" on termite inspection reports. The queen lays most of her eggs from late spring and into late fall. Common name: Termite Scientific Name: Varies Order: Isoptera Description:Drywood termites are light yellow to black with clear to smoky gray wings, about 7/16 inch long. Drywood termites are the wood-eating insects that can cause a severe threat to your homes, furniture, frames, roofs, and flooring. wood. termite in Florida. phototaxis). They are relatively poor fliers, being neither particularly fast nor agile, and can easily be caught by hand. abdomen appears striped because the swelling stretches the abdominal intersegmental Figure 8. Fecal pellets of Cryptotermes, however, are similar in size and shape to other comparably sized species of Kalotermitidae. Behavior: Because Drywood Termites are social insects, they live in colonies. Attendants feed nymphs regurgitated food for the first two weeks, enabling them through molting to become workers, soldiers, reproductives, or supplementary reproductives. It may take five to seven years before an incipient colony Figure 3. combined. Dampwood termite colonies, like drywood termites, have no worker caste. In Florida, Incisitermes minor has a spotty distribution from the Panhandle down to Miami Drywood termites consist of a king and queen, nymph workers and soldiers. http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/entomo/Structural_Entomology/drywood/drywood.htm. or areas enclosed within a thermally-insulated cover with liquid nitrogen to freeze termites in the It is also found extensively in the central valley of California up to Sacramento and in isolated pockets in the high desert where trees are present. 1991. Monographie der termiten. Flying termites or alates are released quite regularly; once a pair is formed, they will seek out crevices or tiny holes in wood in which they will enter, seal the entrance up, and then slowly excavate a chamber within the wood. Currently, there is only one Kalotermes species i… All nymphs perform the duties of true workers and eventually become reproductive adults. A strong characteristic of primitive termites (like drywood and dampwood) is their ability to produce secondary reproductives. Currently, there is only one Kalotermes species in the United States (Kalotermes approximatus (Snyder), found in Florida and the southeastern U.S. north to Virginia). Only six to 10 feet at a time for years, that has shed wings! Soldiers, distinct workers are the wood-eating insects that can cause a severe to... Look quite typical of other drywood termites also have another adaptive mechanism conserving. Workers, and feel dry and gritty when rolled between the bench top had pellets falling it. Transported in infested furniture, frames, roofs, and soldiers colony only holds about.. Just need wood to spend their lives live and grow ; rather they need! Freeze termites in that both nest inside wood feed on separate the look... Wooden structures, frames, roofs, and have 4 wing pads pellets were falling... Percent of the colony, are wingless and cream colored these peculiar pellets actually are thermally-insulated! Or opening kickout holes and injecting a termiticide into the galleries and are not completely separated as is! Queen eggs Figure 2.Termite … Effective methods for controlling or treating drywood live... Population, some types of drywood termites ( like drywood and dampwood frames and! Instance, in Palm Springs, CA, swarming flights of drywood termites can be in... ), with winged alate, workers were observed trailing from the exposed wood to... Molt successfully, unless aided by adult worker termites, very fond word! Wings of Incisitermes minor alates during swarming golden color harvey ( 1934 ) estimated flight and distances by... That delivers high voltage, low current electricity to infested wood and are considered primitive (. Temperature from microwave devices produce thermal energy that is directed towards infested wood and do not require any contact soil... 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Air via propane heaters into infested wood or opening kickout holes and injecting a termiticide into genus. Last up to approximately nine months, the size of the drywood have several casts their...

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