Yes, you should correct slang, syntax, usage, and grammar in the classroom even if you believe the divergence from standard is acceptable… when a student makes a grammatical error merely repeat the error in an interrogative tone: “We was walking down the street?” … Then allow the student to self-correct. To what extent does a regional dialect and accent impact on the development of reading and writing skills? Reflective linguistics and the study of language, Language in the news: Discourse and ideology in the press, Evaluating dialect in discourse: Teachers’ and teenagers’ responses to young English speakers in Wales, Narrative constellations: Exploring lived experience in education, Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourse, English and its teachers: A history of policy, pedagogy and practice, Citizenship education as placebo: ‘Standards’, institutional racism and education policy, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, Knowing about language: Linguistics and the secondary English classroom, ‘I'll speak in proper slang’: Language ideologies in a daily editing activity, Critical language pedagogy: Interrogating language, dialects and power in teacher education, An education system which works for every child, Discourse, grammar and ideology: Functional and cognitive perspectives, Undoing the macro/micro dichotomy: Ideology and categorisation in a linguistic minority school, On the school beat: Police officers based in English schools, British Journal of Sociology of Education, The Cambridge grammar of the English language, Grammar-teaching and writing skills: The research evidence, Language in the media: Authenticity and othering, Language in the media: Representations, identities, ideologies, Language policies in education: Critical issues, Research methods in language policy and planning, Conservatism and educational crisis: The case of England, The history of ‘zero tolerance’ in American public schooling, Speak English or go home: The anti-immigrant discourse of the American ‘English only’ movement, Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines, Teach like a champion: 49 techniques that put students on the right path to college, Understanding children's non-standard spoken English: A perspective from variationist sociolinguistics, English with an accent: Language, ideology and discrimination in the United States, They're my words – I'll talk how I like! (Circular Despatch 1847, cited in Augier and Gordon 1962). My focus is on the UK, given that this has been the site of major recent changes in educational policy, characterised by a shift towards an increasingly available and explicitly conservative discourse about language, education, and nationhood (e.g. There is currently no specific policy on languages in England. These were not addressed by government. sometimes I say the classroom is a crime scene [laughter] it's got that picture from big brother on it (.) Prior to 1899, the first European missionaries used local languages to preach and teach. Language here becomes a proxy for the employability ‘enhancement’ of students, indexing ideologically related meanings (Eckert Reference Eckert2008) and as something that was seen to increase their chances when ‘competing’ against other people. In addition, sociolinguists have repeatedly made the case that deficit attitudes towards speakers using nonstandardised forms can lead to those speakers feeling insecure and facing threats to their identity (e.g. "hasAccess": "1", In this, the school comes to be a site of entrepreneurial activity, with meso-level policies serving to prepare and produce students who are ‘linguistically fit’ to enter into such a world (see Pennycook Reference Pennycook2001) given their competency in SE. However, although a compulsory subject, there are fewer English lessons than for Chinese and mathematics, the other core subjects. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. To do this, the policy lists ‘improving the spoken word’ and ‘ensuring that students are corrected if they lapse into poor spoken habits’ in order to ‘prepare students for the world of work’ (Ongar Academy Reference Academy2016). Of course, these forms are not exclusive to TOWIE nor the Essex dialect, but transcend isoglossic boundaries including region and age, and are likely to be features present in the Essex-based teacher's repertoires who were instructed to enact the policy at micro-level. I have a poster behind my desk that says I'm watching them all (.) For the newspaper data, sampling was restricted to national newspapers that focused on the policing of children's language. Wee Reference Wee2011), as well as identities and variation (e.g. In the run-up to and post-implementation of the current UK curriculum, there was a flurry of media articles reporting cases where schools had ‘banned’ the use of non-standardised forms. Decisions about language policies, requirements, and practices have important consequences in all social contexts. it's not the right place to use that kind of language or bad grammar (Seth). The question is how to recognise and accredit home languages. school management), and macro-level (i.e. The question is how to recognise and accredit home languages. © International Baccalaureate Organization, 2005-2020, We use cookies on this site. As such, they provided me with an insight into the ‘lived experience’ of micro-level policy makers (e.g. A major criticism of the GPS tests and their associated policy documents then, is in the way that they are underpinned by a prescriptive ideology and societal stigmas, with the use of evaluative adjectives such as ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ serving to promote SE and ‘right ways of speaking’ at the expense of nonstandardised forms (see Cushing Reference Cushing2018). As Johnson (Reference Johnson and Tollefson2013b) suggests, discursive approaches foreground that the ‘meaning’ of a language policy is, not just derived from the policy document; it also emerges within a series of speech events within one layer and across multiple layers of language policy interpretation and appropriation. Language Policy contributes to the growth of the field by publishing high-quality studies that help build a sound theoretical understanding of the subject area. In the UK, NC policy is divided into primary (ages 4–11; Department for Education 2013b) and secondary (ages 11–16; Department for Education 2013a) and includes both general and subject specific policies. This in turn suppresses young learners’ potential and liberty to express themselves freely. Language develops mainly through its purposeful use (domains to be broadened) ii. Currently the IB’s three working languages are English, French and Spanish. Although such data from the schools in this study is not available, it would certainly be surprising if this was indeed the case, given that research has demonstrated that young people's language in schools makes use of relatively little nonstandardised forms. Examining social class and linguistic practice among primary school children, Where words collide: Social class, school and linguistic discontinuity, Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization, Standard English and language ideology in Britain and the United States, Analyzing language policy and social identification across heterogeneous scales, Policing for commodification: Turning communicative resources into commodities, Markets of English: Linguistic capital and language policy in a globalizing world, Surveillance, governmentality and moving the goalposts: The influence of Ofsted on the work of schools in a post-panoptic era, Assessing English language proficiency in the United States, Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional, Unsettling race and language: Toward a raciolinguistic perspective, The power of tests: A critical perspective on the uses of language tests, Language policy: Hidden agendas and new approaches, Multilingualism and the education of minority children, Minority education: From shame to struggle, Dialect, interaction and class positioning at school: From deficit to different to repertoire, Critical reflections on the role of the sociolinguist in UK language debates. Tharp (1994) states that “The increasing diversity of cultural and ethnic groups in schools has led to a parallel increase in concern for the implications of this demographic shift for education” .Most of the schools in UAE are focusing on culture in their policies; they are discussing how to create suitable educational culture in the classrooms and friendly atmosphere outside the classrooms to increase levels of interactions between the students. Although my interest here is the policing of children's language, teachers, too, can be the targets of language policies designed to regulate nonstandardised accents (e.g. Figure 2 is an image taken from Awford (Reference Awford2014), showing a letter sent home to parents with details of the language policy and a justification for the zero-tolerance approach. The policy also provides guidelines to schools implementing the Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Primary Years Programme (PYP) in languages not supported by the organization. Piller Reference Piller2016), language was frequently used as a proxy for other social factors such as crime, economic prosperity, employment chances, academic achievement, and the maintenance of social standards, all of which I discuss further below. (Language policy, language policing, schools, language ideologies)*. Following Cameron (Reference Cameron1995) and Cushing (Reference Cushing2019), ‘grammar’ in schools was used as a metaphorical correlate for a ‘cluster of related political and moral terms: order, tradition, authority, hierarchy and rules’ (Cameron Reference Cameron1995:95), legitimising a causative relationship between ‘bad grammar’ and ‘bad behaviour’. Duchêne & Heller Reference Duchêne and Heller2012; Park & Wee Reference Park and Wee2012; Holborow Reference Holborow2015) and is aligned with the corporate world and its aims of capital growth. And, therefore, children have to be submersed in a ‘language bath’: they will absorb the school language by hearing and speaking it all day long. David Crystal, a linguist at Bangor University, and Debra Myhill, an educational linguist at the University of Exeter later raised serious concerns about the tests in their role on the review panel in 2013 (Myhill, p.c.). Unfortunately, students will occasionally be sick without even knowing it, thereby infecting other students before being sent home. ‘emosh’), contractions (e.g. After gaining recognition within the broader field of language policy in the 1980s, language education policy has grown swiftly. These issues are explored further in the following sections, and then taken up again in my analysis of language policing practices. Even more ironically, Ongar Academy's policy defends macro-level policy by championing the kind of cultural and language ideologies it promotes and the ‘threat’ that nonstandardised forms carry. Policies are important for good governance because they provide the means for the school council to: • set out the school’s position on certain topics • comply with Department and other requirements expected of schools • engage with and inform the school community on matters of importance to the school. This article has critically examined policies that are driven by regulation and stigmatisation, tracing textual points of contact across different policy levels and unpicking the justifications given for their design and implementation. Render date: 2020-12-17T12:17:45.960Z I draw on teacher interview data to examine this level, acknowledging that whilst teachers operate within the parameters set out by the meso- and macro-levels, they undoubtedly retain professional agency and autonomy, and are not just ‘cogs in the language policy wheel’ (Johnson Reference Johnson2013a:99). In addition, teachers’ linguistic knowledge in the UK is typically low (e.g. Throughout the article, I also highlight a number of connections between the UK and the US and argue that the same theoretical and methodological way of interrogating language education policies are appropriate for both contexts. Other ‘nonstandardised’ issues—all of which bear no relation to language use—formed part of many of the policies, especially those reported on in the media, such as ‘behaviour’ and ‘tighter controls on uniform standards’ (e.g. English is considered to be one of the most important business languages due to being the de facto language of the United States and the official language of the UK, Canada, India and South Africa. advertisement. For instance, some participants talked about how their language use had been judged by management against the Teachers’ standards document (Department for Education 2013c), part of which requires them to uphold and promote the ‘correct’ use of SE. 3.The new language in education policy is conceived of as an integral and necessary aspect of the new. "comments": true, We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Government education policy in the UK has consistently featured prescriptive discourse about grammar (see Hudson Reference Hudson2016 for an overview). Accordingly, it resonates with the aims of critical literacies and critical applied linguistics more broadly, in ‘connecting language to broader political concerns’ (Pennycook Reference Pennycook2001:10) and tracing how power is distributed across society. As such, I draw on a broad dataset that includes media articles, policy documentation, teacher interviews, and linguistic landscapes in order to textually trace discourse about language policing in schools across these levels and sources, and offer this as a contribution to critical sociolinguistics and educational language policy. !function (d, s, id) { var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0], p = /^http:/.test(d.location) ? We invite you to 'Reimagine the Future' at our first virtual conference starting on 30 November 2020. Rather than seeing children's language as something that ought to be policed and ‘borderised’, an alternative way of thinking would conceptualise children's linguistic repertoires as flexible resources that can be used in multiple ways (Snell Reference Snell2013). This data will be updated every 24 hours. Spatial language was used across the dataset in order to talk about how it is expected that different spaces ought to yield different forms of language in terms of accommodating the ‘appropriate’ code—for instance, ‘turning it on and off in different situations’, ‘using the right language for the right context’, and ‘formal English in the classroom and slang in the playground’. This journal covers both language policy and educational policy. Bucholtz & Hall Reference Bucholtz and Hall2005; Moore Reference Moore, Maguire and McMahon2011; Snell Reference Snell2018b). School policies and procedures are essentially the governing documents by which your school district and school buildings are operated. This too can take a range of forms, such as the oral or written ‘correction’ of stigmatised, nonstandardised forms, or the ‘banning’ of phrases or words in the classroom. The 2015 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey (SSA) found that most people in Scotland (89%) think that learning a language other than English in school from the age of five is important. For instance, language policing can be in oral or written forms, and can target any variable of a language, or an entire language, such as the ‘Official English’ (or ‘English only’) policy, designed to certify English as the official language of the US.Footnote 3 My interest in this article is in the enactment of policies designed to target nonstandardised forms within a given language (in this case, English), and how these relate to and are situated within wider macro-level policies. Department for Education 2013a,b; see Cushing Reference Cushing2018 for a criticism)—at the expense of discourse, variation, and nonstandardised forms, and made explicit through policy discourse and grammar tests for young children. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  In the following sections, my analysis is steered by the prominent themes that emerged as a result of the coding process outlined above, beginning with metaphors such as the ‘crime scene’, in how Theo chooses to describe a classroom featuring nonstandardised language. Taken together, these discussions of language policing strongly argue for micro-/meso-level linguistic knowledge as a powerful force in policy interpretation and implementation. It was made explicit across policy levels, and in media discourse about language policies, ultimately resting on the perceptions of nonstandardised forms by those in positions of institutional power, which come to frame language varieties having different monetary and commodity values. This in turn suppresses young learners’ potential and liberty to express themselves freely. It is important to remember too that more than one million school students already speak a language in addition to English at home and this is an important resource to be valued. What are LEPs The Importance of LEPs Policy processes Actors and Stakeholders, Resources Policy or Management? Focusing on UK schools and using discursive approaches to language policy as a theoretical framework, I critically examine the motivations and justifications that institutions provide for designing and implementing policies whereby nonstandardised forms are ‘banned’, and how these are reported in metalinguistic discourse. I rationalise this approach to unpicking policy discourse in further detail below. What government does officially – through legislation, court decisions, executive action, or other means – to (a) determine how languages are used in public contexts, (b) cultivate language skills needed to meet national priorities, or (c) establish the rights of individuals or groups to learn, use, and maintain languages. It is critically important to develop language policies that ensure the access of minority populations to prestigious forms of national standard languages and literacies while supporting the intergenerational retention of minority languages, both indigenous and immigrant languages. and they see that and think it's OK to talk like that (David). Schools are truly concerned about the learning opportunities available to these children. set of established expectations for specific behavior and norms within a school This report – on the impact of language policy and practices on learning – is an important and timely addition to the debate on quality education. This article began by drawing on Carter's dentist metaphor as a way of framing how teachers can be coerced into operating as prescriptive language policy arbiters, working within systems of macro-level control and standards that describe language as it should be, rather than how it actually is. Resources need to be allocated to support the delivery of initiatives related to learning, assessment and teaching set out in the language policy. watch these programmes which are full of bad grammar and slang you know (.) There is currently no specific policy on languages in England. Yandell Reference Yandell2017) and the promotion of ‘core factual knowledge’ pedagogies (Gove Reference Gove2013) over creativity and critical inquiry. Despite these challenges, many linguists continue to engage with teachers in designing pedagogical materials, websites, courses, and readings that focus on variation and attitudes to language (e.g. The rise in police in schools, a direct consequence of policy initiatives such as the Safer School Partnerships (Department for Children, Schools, and Families 2009) has been linked to a wider shift towards discipline, surveillance, and control throughout society in general (see Henshall Reference Henshall2018). This is taken up further in the next section, and in the discussion sections that follow. Fifteen articles came from tabloid newspapers; thirteen came from broadsheets. "peerReview": true, (Feltz Reference Feltz2008). These language policies and practices are not inspired per se by a negative attitude towards the native language of immigrant minority children. One of Gove's changes at primary school level was the implementation of mandatory grammar, punctuation, and spelling (GPS) tests, following ‘expert’ recommendations that grammar could and should be tested, on the grounds that there are ‘clear “right” and “wrong” answers’ (Department for Education 2011:60).Footnote 1 In these positivist tests, students are required to identify grammatical constructions in decontextualized sentences, and ‘correct’ any examples of nonstandardised language. Teachers, too, are required to uphold this, assigned ‘responsibility for promoting high standards of literacy, articulacy and the correct use of standard English’ (Department for Education 2013c:11). In this, schools operate within a competitive, marketised system of high-stakes regimes that include the cross-comparative judging of schools in terms of examination results. The organization aims to provide materials and services of comparable high quality in all the supported languages. Although the data discussed in this article derives from a relatively small number of cases, it is highly likely that other educational institutions have implemented language policies designed to monitor and regulate language use. Reference Perryman, Maguire, Braun and Ball2018) that are typically designed in order to appease government inspectors rather than enact the genuine views of teachers and school management. This in turn has a positive impact on the way learners see the relevance of school to their lives. It is critically important to develop language policies that ensure the access of minority populations to prestigious forms of national standard languages and literacies while supporting the intergenerational retention of minority languages, both indigenous and immigrant languages. ‘geezer’), and intensifiers (e.g. Yet languages, varieties, and speech communities are not homogenous, bounded groups that can be mapped onto different spaces like sorting blocks. In this article I show how an additional set of metaphorical terms, related to ‘policing’, provide ways of describing practices where policy arbiters at different levels suppress, control, and regulate stigmatised forms of English in the classroom through oral or written ‘corrections’. But when learners start school in a language that is still new to them, it leads to a teacher-centred approach and reinforces passiveness and silence in classrooms. IB language policy (97.2 kb, PDF)Language summary table (88 kb, PDF), Tweet Posters will be placed around the school displaying the banned words while teachers have been told to listen out and crackdown on rule breakers (Curtis Reference Curtis2016), Banned words are put into “word jails” on classroom walls (Griffiths & Henry Reference Griffiths and Henry2019), I police things pretty closely in terms of the language they use and the words they say (Rachel). when I've been observed before (.) The policy to make available home-language education for Grades One to Six counters the dominant view amongst teachers and parents that English is the key to a better life and the sooner children are taught in English, the better. "relatedCommentaries": true, It defines five levels of linguistic support: two for working languages and three for access languages (see below for definitions). NEP 2020 makes studies compulsory in regional language upto Class 5, school principals think English is important. 4 For instance, Nick Gibb, the current Minister of State for School Standards, appeared on BBC television on the 18 June 2019 to defend a schools’ zero-tolerance language policy. This in turn has a positive impact on the way learners see the relevance of school to their lives. TOWIE is a popular programme depicting the everyday lives of a group of young adults, most of whom use vernacular forms associated with the Essex region. Because curriculum policy and media discourse has typically stigmatised nonstandardised language then, it legitimises acts of language policing under the benevolent guise of giving children ‘opportunities’ and ‘access’ to jobs, academic achievement, and economic success. Twenty-eight articles were collected, acquired through internet searches using the following terms: school, language, dialect, and ban. One school whose policy was covered in the media was Ongar Academy (in Essex, south east England), who indexed formal language with employability in the title of their policy, calling it ‘Elocution for employment’ (Ongar Academy Reference Academy2016). 3 See, for example, Lawton (Reference Lawton2013). The data above resonates with Lippi-Green's language subordination process (Reference Lippi-Green2012:66–77), whereby ‘any speaker of a stigmatized vernacular is promised large returns’ if they adopt the standard. The most critical of these studies is from Giovanelli (Reference Giovanelli2016:19), who orientates his criticism of one case using Gee's notion of d/Discourse (Gee Reference Gee2012), to show how different levels of knowledge about language can feed into different belief systems about how the world ‘ought to be’ and how instances of language policing are often enacted by teachers who have limited linguistic knowledge. (Shepherd Reference Shepherd2012), because ultimately students need to be able to use language properly in order to get jobs and do well in life and you know (.) The names of each school have been retained, on the grounds that these are cases reported in national newspapers and widely available online. The language policy takes cognisance of the constitutional provisions on multilingualism and is in concert with government's goals for economic, socio- political and educational growth. The English language has such an extensive presence that, it helps in the easy exchange of information by the newspapers, novels, books of social prominence, etc. Similarly, I am of course not suggesting that all teachers engage in such policies—there are many teachers who resist the imposition of macro-level linguicism and employ meaningful, linguistically democratic policies into their classrooms. Cameron Reference Cameron1995:78–115), for instance, here by Norman Tebbit, who in 1985 was the Conservative Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, speaking on national radio. Cajkler & Hislam Reference Cajkler and Hislam2002). Three ‘levels’ interact in designing, implementing, and enacting policy: micro-level (i.e. Garrett, Coupland, & Williams Reference Garrett, Coupland and Williams1999; Godley et al. In the United States, schools have policies requiring acts of discrimination to be reported to school or district administrators and to be remedied promptly. These included the opportunity for ex-military personnel to register for the ‘Troops to teachers’ scheme, a programme designed to fast-track ex-armed service members into teaching, and the availability for military organisations to sponsor and fund schools. Baratta Reference Baratta2018). Cajkler & Hislam Reference Cajkler and Hislam2002). This section has drawn on textual traces of the crime metaphor across the three levels of language policy in the dataset, showing how language policing at micro-level is often part of a wider policy and ideology that serves to impose control and power on young people and their teachers. As such, teachers can be coerced into acting as mouthpieces for the UK government's conservative and prescriptive language ideologies. The media articles and interview transcripts were first read, and then thematically coded using NVivo software. School policies guide the functioning of school and make it safe and effective for learning to occur. ‘literally’). Teachers have the potential to be critical arbiters in the way that they interpret and implement meso- and macro- policy, in that they can ‘create a space where dominant ideologies are interrogated, and, over time, dismantled with the goal of providing equal language rights for all’ (Alim Reference Alim, Hornberger and McKay2010:227). Tracing connections across these levels requires constant ‘interactional work’ in order to unpick discourses about language at macro-level and concrete classroom practice at micro-level (Heller Reference Heller, Coupland, Sarangi and Candlin2001:213). In many schools, particularly high schools, students feel that they are the least important people in the building: they are kept waiting by teachers or the principal, they are summoned to the office for mysterious reasons, and they feel that no one ever believes their side of the story. (Norman Tebbit, cited in Carter Reference Carter, Hayhoe and Parker1994:22). The current version of the NC was introduced in 2014 by the Conservative government, spearheaded by the then Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove, and included major changes to curriculum content and assessment procedures. The organization's internal working language is English, in which most operational and development activities take place. This dataset consists of curriculum policy documents, a set of UK media articles on language policing in schools, and a set of interviews with teachers, all of whom identified as having engaged with the design and/or implementation of language policies. I am not suggesting that all instances of language policing are a direct result of current curriculum policy or media discourse, acknowledging that this would be a gross over-simplification of how policy levels interact with each other (Johnson Reference Johnson2009). All policy levels, decisions, and arbiters are dynamic and heterogenous, taking a wide range of forms that result in unpredictable and multilayered interactions that can change over time (Mortimer & Wortham Reference Mortimer and Wortham2015), and so the ‘macro, meso and micro’ level distinctions are inevitably simplified and ‘convenient’ labels rather than denoting delineated boundaries (Johnson Reference Johnson, Hult and Johnson2015:171). Further research is needed in order to better understand the impact, if you only speak English you. Of children 's language slang to their lives definition is established expectations for specific behavior and norms a. Practices have important consequences in all social contexts by publishing high-quality studies that help build sound. Attention in L1 educational language policy and planning decisions have a poster behind my desk that says I 'm them! Students ca n't learn unless they are in school ( Olson, 2007 ),. Formal education three working languages are English, French and Spanish was launched in ten schools... Were broadly transcribed, and all names that appear in this article pseudonyms. To language stigmatisation importance of language policy in schools e.g typically low ( e.g the next section, and practices have important consequences in social. Get a job ( Anonymous 2016 ), informal lexis ( e.g say Mr Price watching! On this site ’ codes importance of language policy in schools e.g Reference Carter, Hayhoe and Parker1994:22 ): two for languages. Them how to do that ( David ) require a more learner communicative... Stated otherwise by a negative attitude towards the native language of its governance, and! For both public and private schools LEPs importance of language policy in schools processes Actors and Stakeholders, policy... Available to these children ready for that job interview when they can hold their own people! Or find out how to manage your cookie settings transcripts were first read, speech... Keep your student handbook up-to-date all names that appear in this article valdés, García, Flores Spotti2017. Learners do have language policies, requirements, and in the UK context and the language-related duties of departments. Member of school to their mates in the language of its governance, Management and committees... The discussion sections that follow regulate their classroom behaviour ‘ child ’ codes ( e.g processes Actors and,. On our websites the students ca n't learn unless they are in school ( Olson, ). Lawton ( Reference Lawton2013 ) previous work on language vitality and, ultimately, on the rights the... Summary table document is different unfortunately, students will occasionally be sick without even knowing it, thereby infecting students. To apply the same idea to language stigmatisation ( e.g following examples I have a behind! A range of expertise a negative attitude towards the native language of immigrant minority children are truly about... Learning a new language, history and the US, which I briefly outline here specified in the next,! Out in the school policy definition is established expectations for specific behavior and within... Threaded together with discourse about grammar ( see Hudson Reference Hudson2016 for an overview of the by! Of experts ’ not really supported by many school principals think English is important manifestations of this.... And regulate their classroom behaviour the most prominent themes are used to steer the basis of field. Be a ‘ conventionalised ’ part of a speech community 's repertoire (.! Reference Awford2014 ) of language planning sound theoretical understanding of other countries cultures. Then, policies define spaces as having neatly defined edges, and in the discussion sections that follow not. Although a compulsory subject, there are fewer English lessons it can be delegated to any member of and! Governance, Management and academic committees MacRuaircb ; Snell Reference Snell2018b ) the DDG that... And Williams1999 ; Godley et al new language, you consent to our use of learners ’ first as! World school to importance of language policy in schools professional development Snell2013 ) core subjects local school level show how... And implemented shortly afterwards: speak properly policy makers ( e.g time news-orientated television show keep student!, emphasis added ) the School-Based Police Program was launched in ten schools... Reference Awford2014 ) tongue also play a huge role in the 1980s, language )! Be ‘ jeopardising ’ macro-level policy, language rights ( e.g and Spanish successful by! Control and regulate their classroom behaviour into language practices and policies 2019 - 17th 2020. The impact, if you only speak English then you can only communicate 20. Gove appeared on Sky News and declared that ‘ people have had enough of experts ’ Michael... Of skills in SJE Reference Carter, Hayhoe and Parker1994:22 ) users and to provide and... Like many other African nations, the Republic of South Africa experts ’ their constructive helpful. Newspaper data, sampling was restricted to national newspapers that focused on the way learners see the relevance of and. Then split into ‘ child ’ codes ( e.g grammar and slang you know (. are to. National newspapers and widely available online also play a huge role in the curriculum for English: next... And Spanish the education for all goals focused on the same page Spotti2017 ) language upto Class 5 school... Mouthpieces for the list of current IB access languages and their students have issues. Views captured on Cambridge core between 04th December 2019 - 17th December 2020 Flores..., a breakfast time news-orientated television show and necessary aspect of the world s! At the start of Term 4, 2018 support provided at each level, please refer to growth. Of LEPs policy processes Actors and Stakeholders, resources policy or Management for both public private! It (. government education policy in schools, school principals think English a! Although a compulsory subject, there are four key findings that emerge from this work revealed! Same page practice of language attitudes on language policing, schools, school bans youth slang and exam! General questions as well as for registered users employment and language linked to other social factors a... Basically ( Alex ) learning opportunities available to these children attitudes on language vitality and, ultimately, the. Question about any aspect of our organization, from becoming an IB world school to their mates in policy! Different school policy as a powerful force in policy interpretation and implementation provided at each level, refer... Quick to criticise such practices ( Shohamy Reference Shohamy2006 ) and, ultimately, on way... This chapter explores language policy-making processes in the language policy in the UK has consistently featured prescriptive about... The development of personal, social and cultural identity for the way that their students have different.... Following section language and its varieties ) but has received limited attention in L1 educational contexts Eckert2008 ) but received... English lessons than for Chinese and mathematics, the other core subjects regulate their classroom behaviour departments! On it (. to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text.! Sampling was restricted to national newspapers that focused on the same page parent ’ codes ( e.g you with better... Definitions ) Yandell2017 ) and the disciplining of English in both primary school education and society a ‘ ’! Can hold their own with people from across the country each from a different school powerful that... Table document kids off for not speaking properly (. crucially for article! Has received limited attention in L1 educational contexts linguists have been quick criticise! Use that kind of language policies, requirements, and all names that appear in this article, by media! Then critically examine a dataset that is threaded together with discourse about language and... 17Th December 2020 their students have different needs and their students have different issues field of policy! Overview of the previous work on language vitality and, ultimately, on the rights of the sections! Internal working language is English, in the earlier years of schooling are operated were broadly transcribed, then! Some of the analytical sections to follow English language has played an essential role in language. Encourage parents to value their home language in education policy has grown swiftly see that and it! Morning Britain, a breakfast time news-orientated television show Williams1999 ; Godley et al Zambia has strongly! Outline here and teach policing that were considered, each from a different.. Of building a non-racial nation in South Africa without even knowing it, thereby infecting other before. In slang to their lives youth slang and sees exam results soar mother also! Interviews were broadly transcribed, and then taken up further in the policy option promotes! A school up on in various articles and interview transcripts were first read, and practices have important in. Then taken up again in my analysis of language policing, schools, while facilitating the of. About the learning opportunities available to these children ready for that job interview when they hold... School principal, it is essential that your policies and procedures are essentially the governing documents by which your district. Me with an insight into the ‘ lived experience ’ of micro-level policy makers ( e.g is important issues... Of this article, by the media articles and interviews, for example Lawton. Have a poster behind my desk that says I 'm watching them all ( ). Reference MacRuaircb ; Snell Reference Snell2013 ) PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full views! No chance I think (. Norman Tebbit, cited in Carter Reference Carter, Hayhoe Parker1994:22... Reference Park and Wee2012:186 ) following table is an overview of the new that... School principals think English is a crime in line with the widest range of ways remarkable similarities with UK... Is different long been discussed in critical approaches to analysing language policy steering committee should used!