Let's look at examples of research questions and sample research questions in general. Thesis Writing & Dissertation | Academic Writing Help for Those Feeling Stuck, Choosing between Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Table 1. •Guidelines for writing –Pose a question… You are often drawing your conclusions by manipulating the independent variable and observing the effects on the dependent variable (DV). In fact, questions such as “What factors influence the removal of children in child welfare cases?” are good because they will explore a variety of factors or causes. Use of non-directional wording in the question. Quantitative explanatory questions must include an independent and dependent variable. The language of research methods is critical in shaping the research question to align with a methodology. The research question also has to align with a methodology (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) as well as with a specific design that is supported by the methodology. Your research question guides your research and your choice of methodology, so you need to make sure you get this step right early. Choosing a research question is the central element of both quantitative and qualitative research and in some cases it may precede construction of the conceptual framework of study; in all cases, it makes the theoretical assumptions in the framework more explicit and indicates what the researcher wants to know most and first. If your desire is to perform a qualitative study, it will probably be a lot easier to develop your research question if you first become familiar with some of qualitative research’s basic … If you are conducting your quantitative research, you can use this research as an example for your study. Specify whether the study: discovers, seeks to understand, explores or describes the experiences. Therefore, how you ask your question will influence your subsequent data analysis. Guidebook for Social Work Literature Reviews and Research Questions, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. We aren’t trying to build a causal relationship here. In the first example, the dependent variable is daily calorific intake (i.e., calories consumed per day). Driving Questions in Qualitative Research Examples . Select the structure of the question; for example, sometimes the dependent variable will come first, and in other use cases it will go last. To summarize what we have already learned from our previous posts, there are three types of quantitative research questions. Open-ended questions are asked in a manner that encourages answers that lead to another question or group of questions. For general guidelines about how to formulate a great research question, you can take a look at our post here. Perhaps you want to study the effect of a specific anti-homelessness program that you found in the literature. Quantitative descriptive questions will often ask for percentage, count the number of instances of a phenomenon, or determine an average. The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. For example, “What is the average student debt load of MSW students?” is a descriptive question—and an important one. Quantitative methodologies measure or count or experiment. On the other hand, if you are looking at predictions, linear regression or multiple regression would be amongst your choices. What outcome should the program or intervention have? 3. Table 4.1 does just that. A representative sample resembles important characteristics of the population from which it was drawn, in ways that are important for the research being conducted. In this question, the independent variable is less clearly written, but the dependent variable, family preservation outcomes, is quite clearly written. This research questions serve as the backbone of the research. 4.Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. How does witnessing domestic violence impact a child’s romantic relationships in adulthood? Quantitative research question examples Probably the easiest questions to think of are quantitative descriptive questions. Below are a few research question ideas and good research question examples. We’re simply trying to describe how much debt MSW students carry. Definition of the Terms What is quantitative research? Quantitative Research Questions THREE RULES for Quantitative Research Questions 1. It is generally used to answer clear, pre-defined questions in the advanced stages of a research study. To write research questions that integrate the variables of the study, you should be able to define what is a variable.If this term is already quite familiar to you, and you are confident in your understanding, you may read the rest of … text, video, or audio). Structurally, quantitative explanatory questions must contain an independent variable and dependent variable. If someone is proposing to conduct an exploratory quantitative project, the watch words highlighted in Table 4.2 are not problematic at all. Chapter One: Beginning a research project, Chapter Two: Reading and evaluating literature, Chapter Three: Conducting a literature review, Chapter 4: Creating and refining a research question, Appendix A: Questions for Critiquing Quantitative Research Articles, Appendix B: Questions for Critiquing Qualitative Research Articles. Qualitative and quantitative data research are the two main types of research design. Correlational research examples are numerous and highlight several instances where a correlational study may be carried out in order to determine the statistical behavioral trend with regards to the variables under consideration. Here, the title ‘Research Methodology’ is used in which you describe in detail how you collected the data to answer your research questions stipulated in Chapter 1 – Introduction. Specifically, for quantitative research questions, you can follow these basic steps: Your type of research question will determine the way you collect your quantitative data and also the statistical analysis that will follow. It is important that one of those variables is an independent variable (IV). The process of developing your research question follows several steps: Choose a broad topic; Do some preliminary reading to find out about topical debates and issues; Narrow down a specific niche that you want to focus on; Identify a practical or theoretical research problem that you will address; When you have a clearly-defined problem, you need … Formulate the Research Question. Identify your dependent and independent variables from the data groups you are interested in. Qualitative research is heavily dependent on the experience of the researchers and the questions used to probe the sample. The editorial board of a journal wants to make sure their content will be useful to as many people as possible, so it’s not surprising that quantitative research dominates the academic literature. The sample size is usually restricted to 6-10 people. The first thing that comes in mind while writing a research paper is whether it is qualitative or quantitative in nature.. clearly defined research question - 4534778 What are the internal and external effects/problems associated with children witnessing domestic violence? Explanatory research tries to build something called nomothetic causal explanations.Matthew DeCarlo says “com[ing]up with a broad, sweeping explanation that is universally true for all people” is the hallmark of nomothetic causal relationships (DeCarlo, 2018, chapter 7.2, para 5). It can be challenging in social work research to be this specific, particularly when you are just starting out your investigation of the topic. The goal is to make the research question reflect what you really want to know in your study. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. If we were to ask, “What outcomes are associated with family preservation services in child welfare?”, we would have a clear independent variable, family preservation services, but an unclear dependent variable, outcomes. Any option is probably okay, as long as the researchers are clear on what they mean by “household tasks.”. The procedure used in a quantitative research can be repeatedly done to measure the validity of previous results. As the most basic type of quantitative research question, descriptive questions seek to explain when, where, why, or how something occurred. Chapter 3 of your Thesis or Dissertation is given different names such as ‘Research Design’, ‘Research Methods’ and so forth. To do that, we need to use a quantitative explanatory question. Research can be undertaken in a variety of settings (the types of place where information is gathered), like in hospitals, homes, or other community settings. However, social work research demands that you examine the literature on the topic and refine your question over time to be more specific and clear before you begin your study. If you’ve only read one or two articles on the topic, it can be hard to know what you are interested in studying. A systematic review is based on a pre-defined specific research question (Cochrane Handbook, 1.1).Well-formulated questions will guide many aspects of the review process, including determining eligibility criteria, searching for studies, collecting data from included studies, and presenting findings (Cochrane Handbook, 2.1). In the second example, the … Effective at doing what? The type of research you are conducting will impact the research question that you ask. The answer often leads to other questions — questions which need to be the scope of a new study; a quantitative or a qualitative study based on the questions that are unearthed. Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Questions. The use of Research Questions as opposed to objectives or hypothesis, is more frequent. Broad questions like “What are the causes of chronic homelessness, and what can be done to prevent it?” are common at the beginning stages of a research project. A research question helps us define what we hope to learn when we conduct our study. In quantitative research, you usually work with at least two variables. Reduced symptoms of a mental health issue? Characteristics Use of words- what or how. Example:  What is the relationship between years on the job and a sense of loyalty to the company? 27 Research questions examples. What is the relationship between sexual orientation or gender identity and homelessness for late adolescents in foster care? But are your definition and the students’ definition the same? Specify the independent and dependent variables 3. They are: They use data and statistics to describe an event or phenomenon. Example: Is there a significant difference in reading scores between children who read five books a month and children who read two books a month? Let’s take a look at a few more examples of possible research questions and consider the relative strengths and weaknesses of each. What makes a good quantitative research question? They are generalizable across space and time, so they are applicable to a wide audience. If the scan reveals that the community requires more services related to housing, child care, or day treatment for people with disabilities, a nonprofit office can use the community scan to create new programs that meet a defined community need. Questions in qualitative research can be described as an inverted pyramid, beginning with a broad, overarching question and narrowing down to focus on the “why” and Format your content like this investigation for a foolproof thesis paper. For instance, if you want to know if there is a significant difference between two variables, the t-test would be one possible statistical method. trust develops over time, employees feel supported over time, so they reciprocate, etc.). Quantitative descriptive questions. Questions should ask about the relation between these variables. You may want to focus on a potential cause of homelessness such as LGBTQ discrimination that you find interesting or relevant to your practice. While reading the table, keep in mind that it only includes some of the most relevant strengths and weaknesses of each question. Quantitative Research Questions •Types of quantitative research questions –Describe results of your variables. Qualitative Approach. They Begin with “How”, “What”, or “Why” and can NEVER be answered by a simple Yes or No 2. What causes or effects are you interested in? it is difficult to claim with certainty that one thing alone can predict another). Unlike qualitative research, quantitative research is generally not used in the early stages of research for exploring a question or scoping out a problem. Try to choose one or a handful that you consider to be the most important. In exploratory research, the researcher doesn’t quite know the lay of the land yet. Research Outcome Number 2. A group of students investigating gender and household tasks knows what they mean by “household tasks.” You likely also have an impression of what “household tasks” means. Examples of Correlational Research. Choosing between qualitative vs. quantitative research can be challenging, especially if you do not know their differences. A good research question should also be specific and clear about the concepts it addresses. A well-designed research question will set your study up for future success. Effectiveness is meaningless on its own. A participant in their study may think that managing finances and performing home maintenance are household tasks, but the researcher may be interested in other tasks like childcare or cleaning. One commonality is the complexity of the research questions and the relationships between them. Quantitative descriptive questions are helpful for community scans but cannot investigate causal relationships between variables. When we know that two variables have a relationship, we want to see if we can predict one from the other. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. How does income inequality affect ambivalence in high-density urban areas? The research question must be accurately and clearly defined. Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g. Characteristics of a quantitative research project • Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought • All aspects are carefully and precisely designed before data collection • Data are in the form of numbers and statistics • … Better socialization? Table 4.2 contains some “watch words” that indicate you may need to be more specific about the concepts in your research question. Most studies you read in the academic literature will be quantitative and explanatory. examples of questions throughout the process, as well as provide some notes on the support of technologies. Certainly each question may have additional strengths and weaknesses not noted in the table. Why is that? 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